“Juliet is the sun” (Shakespeare), “Time is the devourer of all things” (Ovid), “Poverty is the sister of beggary” (Aristophanes), “she is all states and all princes” “ Argument is war”(Lakoff and Johnsen), like as this literature metaphor in our daily life activities and educational field so many metaphors are used such as: ‘Schools are Garden’, ‘Teaching is Gardening’, ‘Learning is life’, ‘He is ox’, ‘The book was passport to adventure’, ‘The assignment was a breeze,’ ‘Discipline as jewel of students’ ‘Teacher as engineers of the soul and life’, Science is hard and dull subject,’ ‘SLC is Iron Gate,’ and ‘Educational investment is water pour on sand’ etc. they may be visible and invisible because they are our ordinary vocabulary and understand immediately.
During the use of such metaphor in our practice, there are some questions are arising about it ‘What is metaphor?’, ‘how to write metaphor?’, ‘how to use metaphor in education?’ Is it important or powerful then literal meaning?’ and why? etc.
In this paper, I try to search answers of these questions directed on the basis of our journal 1A instructions. In reviewed different literatures of metaphor found that metaphor lies in an interaction between a metaphorical expression and the context in which it is used (Richards, 1936). Metaphor is a matter of thought and action rather than a device of poetic imagination and the rhetoric flourish, metaphor mediates human understanding and world view (Lan, 2005).
Finally, I arrive at the conclusion that a metaphor is a pervasive in everyday life, not just language and language ornament like as Lakoff and Johnsen views but it is thought and action. It is a ‘figure of speech’ that is use to comparison different things (your Dictionary) with contextually in my view it is representation ‘Decking’ of comparative things or voice which sprinkles the multiple forms and meaning singly. Here I illustrate one curriculum metaphor in my view.
Curriculum As Rainbow
Rainbow is seven colors spectra of single ray of light. Like as this, curriculum also single form of different curriculum assumption such as: content, learning outcomes, process skill, competency and planed action, cultural reproduction, social reconstruction, experience and curere etc. On rainbow, different colors represent the different personality so curriculum needs to provide opportunity for different abilities. According to color psychology, Hinduism, Buddhism and color symbolism of Christianity RAINBOW’s seven colors have different meaning.
RED represents the passion, vitality, enthusiasm, and security, ORANGE be creativity, practicality, playfulness as well as equilibrium, YELLOW represent clarity of thought, wisdom, orderliness, happiness, peace and energy, GREEN shows fertility, growth, balance health and wealth, BLUE be think about unknown, INDIGO constitute mystical, attainment with psycho-abilities, self-awareness and enhancement of intuition and VIOLET promote own imagination, and creating. The good curriculum also necessary to address the above color meaning so wider concept of curriculum catalyzes the spirituality, good health wisdom, creativity, practicality, self-awareness, arts and many more so I think ‘Curriculum as Rainbow’ is relevant.
In another way, scientifically Rainbow has large ‘Bow shape’ like as this curriculum has wider connectivity, it has seven colors spectra make it attractive so curriculum bonded each and every aspect with artful and attractive for all. Similarly, curriculum is abstract form not concreate like as rainbow properties it can be seen but not touch, curriculum think about the future same as ‘rainbow vision’. In practically light strike with water drop it scattering, in the same way when curriculum strike on learner it also diverges in different aspects so ‘CURRICULUM AS RAINBOW’.
After the study of Lakoff and Johnsen view “Metaphor we live by” I also change my perception about metaphor thinking.
I belief that it is not only fancy of language it can promote the linkage on thought and empowering the concept like as Richards arguments metaphor is not just a verbal matter, a shifting and displacement of words, it is the by-product of human thought process.
Metaphorical thinking enforces and empower the concept though bonding of various suitable comparative words as well as theme. For example, in CURRICULUM AS RAINBOW’ metaphor individual start to think about rainbow’s meaning, properties, formation process, color, shape etc. then link with curriculum then interpret it, in such process she/ he develop the different metal schema or concept and create analytical power so it has empowering concept. This my argument support by various views and theories.
They are ‘traditional view comparison theory and the substitution theory (Glucksberg & Keysar, 1993) “Interaction Theory” (Richards, 1936), conceptual metaphor theory (CMT) (Lakoff and Johnson ,1980), blending theory (BT) by Fauconnier & Turner (1996, 1998, 2002). In the summary those theories that the essence of metaphor lies in an interaction between a metaphorical expression and they may bring to mind the target domain, create systematic mappings across conceptual domains and develop the temporary construction of simple cognitive models and the establishment of cognitive mappings between different mental spaces so it is effective for mental activities.
In another side, propositional approach there are several models of associative learning have been put forward such as: Causal model theory Waldmann & Holyoak, 1992) and the higher order or propositional reasoning account (De Houwer, Beckers, & Vandorpe, 2005).
Such propositional models share two core beliefs 1) Associative learning effects are assumed to depend on the formation and evaluation of propositions and 2) Nonautomatic processes are assumed to intervene in the formation and evaluation of knowledge. So this view less develop the learner’s linkage because it mainly focused on intervene of information then evaluate it and finalized thought. In my comparison of above two views, first may be better to improve the concept mapping because it is more interactive and interpretative then definitional approach.
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