BBHE310 Module 4 Discussion Post 2 : Course Scholars

 Formulate one new comment of your own. It must be a logical and thoughtful response that synthesizes the comments of at least 3 classmates into one comment. Be sure to synthesize; do not simply reply to each of the 3 classmates.

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1. For module one, I chose the environmental factors and have recognized the injuries and hostile environments that it is causing in the states. The environment directly affects the health status and plays a major role in quality of life, years of life lived and health disparities. Factors such as poor air quality, second hand smoke, the safety on land and sea.  Environmental factors might seem so vague but it can contribute to cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma and other illnesses. Poor water can lead to GI illnesses, cancers and neurological problems. Environmental factors are also dependent on environmental quality across life stages starting from infancy to geriatrics. Each age group is at a different risk for developing or more likely to develop certain medical conditions (HP, 2020). 

Between 2006–2008 and 2016-2018, potential exposure to unhealthy air quality decreased 43%, from 7.603 to 4.296 billion, exceeding the HP2020 target. Between 2005–2008 and 2013-2016, exposure to secondhand smoke among children aged 3–11 years decreased 27.0%, from 52.2% to 38.1%, exceeding the HP2020 target. In 2013-2016, several groups of children in specific demographic categories had the lowest rates of secondhand smoke exposure, including Asian children, those born outside the U.S., those with private health insurance, and those in families with incomes at 500% or more of the poverty threshold (HP, 2020).

Being aware of these leading health indicators and keeping up to date data and statistics play a huge role in continuing to thrive towards a healthier nation/world.


2. Back in Module 1, I discussed a few Leading Health Indicators (LHI), but the one I focused on the most was access to health services and how it a major issue in healthcare today. According to the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (n.d.), “access to care often varies based on race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, sex, disability status, sexual orientation, gender identity, and residential location.” Objectives associated with access to health services are: increasing the proportion of persons with health insurance, and increasing the proportions with a usual primary care provider, to name a couple (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, n.d.). Each objective is an important factor when attempting to make improvements to individuals and communities.

Healthy People 2020 have had mixed results on the LHIs, with some improving or meeting their goal and some decreasing or having no change. The two objectives I mentioned that relate to access to health services both showed an increase compared to previous years. According to the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (n.d.), “between 2008 and 2018, the rate of persons aged less than 65 years with health insurance increased 7.0%, from 83.2% to 89.0%,” and “between 2007 and 2016, there was no statistically significant change in the proportion of persons with a usual primary care provider” (76.3% in 2007 and 76.4% in 2016) (para 1&2). Based on this data, Healthy People 2020 is on the right track, but more improvement can always be made. New goals and objectives may be considered as the country grows and evolves through the years. 


3. The Leading Health Indicator I chose in Module One is Social Determinants. There has been some positive change to accomplish the Healthy People 2020 targets. For example, the on-time graduation rate (4 years in high school) increased by approximately 4 percent, from 74.9 % in 2007–2008 to 78.2% percent in 2009–2010 (Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators, n.d.). This improvement shows two-fifths progress toward the Healthy People 2020 target of 82.%. In the school year 2017-2018, the Untied States had a public-school high school graduation rate of 85%, however it did not specify these students only had 4 years of high school (no repeats). The report also showed a vast difference in percentages amongst the different races. Asian Pacific Islander had a 92% graduation rate and White students graduated at an 89% rate. However, Hispanic students graduated at 81%, Black students at 79% and American Indian/Alaska Native students had a graduation rate of 74% (National Center for Education Statistics, May 2020). The rates also varied state to state and by race/ethnicity in each state. Some states show the graduation for Black students at 67%, which is well below the Healthy People 2020 target. While the overall national average has increased and met the Health People 2020 target, there are still many states and races/ethnicities that are not meeting that target and still falling well below.


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