In some texts, it Is an event or series of events which gives rise to casualties r damage or loss of property, Infrastructure, essential services or means of livelihood on a scale which Is beyond the normal capacity of the affected communities to cope with unaided. Disaster is sometimes also used to describe a catastrophic situation in which the normal patterns of life (echo-systems) have been disrupted and extraordinary, emergency interventions are required to save and preserve human lives and or the environment. Disasters are frequently categorized according to their perceived causes and speed of Impact.
Yet In other sources Like researched. Mom, it’s a natural or man-made hazard that causes significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, personal injury and economic disruption of great magnitude or drastic change to the environment. All these definitions seem to agree however that disasters can cause serious disruption of the functioning of a society, widespread human, material or environmental losses which render the affected community unable to cope using its own resources.
Disasters Impact and affect the way In which people live.
They can be caused by the Impact of a natural occurrence on human beings or by human beings themselves. They result from the combination of hazard, vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential chances of risk. A disaster happens when a hazard impacts on the vulnerable population and causes damage, casualties and disruption. The sum total of all activities, programmer and measures which can be taken up before, during and after a disaster with the purpose to avoid a disaster, reduce its impact or recover from Its losses Is what constitutes disaster management.
Is therefore a continuous and Integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for prevention of danger or threat of any disaster mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences capacity building preparedness to deal with any disaster prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster assessing severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster evacuation rescue and relief and rehabilitation and reconstruction.
This term paper Is an attempted discussion to explore the extent to which disaster management can provide the opportunity to plan, prepare and enable rational response when need arises. It is organized into brief headings that touch on the classification of disasters, disaster vulnerability and vulnerability analysis, disaster management plans and the phases of risk management cycle. Finally It presents a conclusion and references. Disasters are classified according to either the causes or how rapidly they begin. .
1 Classification by causes. Based on causes, disasters are routinely divided into natural and man-made disasters.
2. 1. 1 Natural disasters They are triggered by natural phenomena or hazards which occur in proximity and pose threat to people, structures or economic assets and may cause disaster. They are caused by biological, geological, seismic, hydrological, or meteorological conditions or processes in the natural environment. They include earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunami and so many others.
2. 1. Man-made Disasters Disasters or emergency situations of which the principal, direct causes are identifiable human actions, deliberate or otherwise. This mainly involves situations in which civilian populations suffer casualties, losses of property, basic services, and means of livelihood as a result of technological hazards, war, civil strife, terrorism or other conflict. In many cases, people are forced to leave their homes, giving rise to congregations of refugees or externally or internally displaced persons. .
2 Classification by how rapidly they begin.
2. 2. 1 Rapid-onset disasters These are sudden calamities caused by natural phenomena such as earthquakes, floods, tropical storms, or volcanic eruptions. They strike with little or no warning and have an immediate adverse impact on human populations, activities, and economic systems. Rapid onset disasters arise after hazards which emerge suddenly and whose occurrence cannot be predicted far in advance.
Other rapid onset disasters include cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons (the same hazard with different names in different parts of the world) which arrive with a few days’ warning, and annually it is known when the cyclone season is likely to occur in specific regions, so that preparations can be made for their arrival.
2. 2. 2 Slow-onset disasters Slow-onset disasters are those resulting from hazards which can take months or years to generate a disaster. Hence, they are sometimes referred to as creeping disasters. Drought is the most common example off slow-onset since it is a creeping honeymoon.
Droughts, typically unfold on a timescale of months to years. This makes it difficult to determine its onset and end. Droughts are relatively slow disasters. Climate change, environmental degradation and desertification are very slow onset events, but can and should be considered as disasters in terms of the damage and disruption to lives that they may or indeed already do create. Slow on- set disasters result into situations in which the ability of people to acquire food and other necessities of life slowly declines to a point where survival is ultimately jeopardized. Read what is included in phase 2 of casualty assistance
Such situations are typically brought on or precipitated by drought, crop early enough, remedial action can be taken to prevent excessive human distress or suffering occurring. However, if neglected, the result can be widespread destitution and suffering, and a need for emergency humanitarianism assistance.
3. 0 DISASTER VULNERABILITY
Vulnerability may be defined as the extent to which a community, structure, services or geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of particular hazard, on account of their nature, construction and proximity to hazardous terrains r a disaster prone area.
Vulnerabilities can be categorized into physical and socio- economic vulnerability. Physical Vulnerability includes notions of whom and what may be damaged or destroyed by natural hazard such as earthquakes or floods. It is based on the physical condition of people and elements at risk, such as buildings, infrastructure etc; and their proximity, location and nature of the hazard. It also relates to the technical capability of building and structures to resist the forces acting upon them during a hazard event.
Socio-economic vulnerability on the other and is the degree to which a population is affected by a hazard will not merely lie in the physical components of vulnerability but also on the socioeconomic conditions. The socioeconomic conditions of the people also determine the intensity of the impact. For example, people who are poor and living in the sea coast don’t have the money to construct strong concrete houses. They are generally at risk and lose their shelters whenever there is strong wind or cyclone. Because of their poverty they too are not able to rebuild their houses.
The process of estimating the vulnerability to attention disaster hazards of specified elements at risk is called Vulnerability analysis. For engineering purposes, vulnerability analysis involves the analysis of theoretical and empirical data concerning the effects of particular phenomena on particular types of structures. For more general socio-economic purposes, it involves consideration of all significant elements in society, including physical, social and economic considerations (both short- and long-term), and the extent to which essential services (and traditional and local coping mechanisms) are able to continue functioning.
It is part of disaster management plan. . 0 DISASTER MANAGEMENT It is a collective term encompassing all aspects of planning for and responding to disasters, including both pre-disaster, during disaster and post-disaster activities. It refers to the management of both the risks and the consequences of disasters and clearly details what needs to be done, how, when, and by whom before and after the time an anticipated disastrous event occurs. Basically there are three disaster management plans as shown below.
A complete disaster management plan is known as a disaster risk management cycle and incorporates pre-disaster, disaster and post disaster phases. . 1 Pre-Disaster Management Plan Pre-disaster activities are those which are taken to reduce human and property losses caused by a potential hazard. For example, carrying out awareness campaigns, strengthening the existing weak structures, preparation of the disaster management plans at household and community level, etc. Such risk reduction measures taken under this stage are termed as mitigation and preparedness activities. . 2 Disaster These include initiatives taken to ensure that the needs and provisions of victims are met and suffering is minimized. Activities taken under this stage are called emergency response activities. 4. 3 Post-Disaster Management Plan There are initiatives taken in response to a disaster with a purpose to achieve early recovery and rehabilitation of affected communities, immediately after a disaster strikes. These are called response and recovery activities. 5. DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT CYCLE The Disaster risk management cycle highlights the range of initiatives which normally occur during both the Emergency response and Recovery stages of a disaster. A risk is defined as the expected losses (lives lost, persons injured, damage to property, and corruption of economic activity) caused by a particular phenomenon. There are four phases of disaster risk management cycle namely mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. The four disaster risk management cycle phases however do not always or even generally occur in isolation or in a given precise order.
Often phases of the cycle overlap and the length of each phase greatly depends on the severity of the disaster. The disaster management cycle illustrates the ongoing process by which governments, businesses, and civil society plan for and reduce the impact of starters, react during and immediately following a disaster, and take steps to recover after a disaster has occurred. 1. Mitigation A collective term used to encompass all activities undertaken in anticipation of the occurrence of a potentially disastrous event, including preparedness and long-term risk reduction measures.
Strategies and specific measures are designed on the basis of risk assessments and political decisions concerning the levels of risk which are considered to be acceptable and the resources to be allocated (by the national and sub-national authorities and external donors). Disaster mitigation accepts the fact that some natural event may occur, but it tries to lessen the impact by improving the community’s ability to absorb the impact with minimum damage or disruptive effect. Actions in this phase include public education and issuing early warning. During this phase it may begin to become obvious that something hazardous is going to happen.
Certain specialists focus on trying to detect signs off building threat. By monitoring events, they look for indicators that tell when, where, and what magnitude the event may be. This is known as prediction or forecasting. The objective is to provide disaster managers with enough information so they can give the people at risk adequate notice or warning to prepare for the disaster and, if necessary, to evacuate. At the present time, warning is possible for droughts and famines, cyclones and most severe weather phenomena, volcanoes, large scale fires, and in some cases earthquakes.
Work is also underway in refugee management to develop early warning techniques that will let relief agencies know of impending refugee crises. 5. 2 Preparedness Measures that ensure the readiness and ability of a society to forecast and take reactionary measures in advance of an imminent threat (in cases where advance warnings are possible), and respond to and cope with the effects of a disaster by organizing and delivering timely and effective rescue, relief and other appropriate post-disaster assistance.
Preparedness involves the development and regular testing measures to be taken during a disaster alert period to minimize potential loss of life and physical damage; the education and training of officials and the population at risk; the establishment of policies, standards, organizational arrangements and operational plans to be applied following a disaster impact; the securing of resources (possibly including the stockpiling of supplies and the earmarking of funds); and the training of intervention teams.
It must be supported by enabling legislation. The preparatory phase of disaster response includes all of the activities that help a society and the disaster agencies to prepare for a disaster event. Activities carried out in the preparatory phase include organization, legislation, development of procedures, inventories of resources, and establishment of response plans. Disaster rapidness assumes that a disaster will occur; it focuses on structuring the emergency response and on laying a framework for recovery.
Preparedness activities could also include pre-positioning supplies and equipment, developing emergency action plans, manuals, and procedures, developing warning, evacuation, and sheltering plans, strengthening or otherwise protecting critical facilities, etc. The purpose of the Disaster Preparedness is to reduce the risk of death, injuries, property damage, and economic and social dislocation from natural and man-made hazards and disasters. It also provides the policy framework to support mitigation, response and recovery efforts. . 3 Response This phase of disaster cycle is also known as emergency phase. It involves actions that are necessary to save lives and reduce suffering. Basically it involves the provision of assistance or intervention during or immediately after a disaster to meet the life preservation and basic subsistence needs of those people affected. Activities in this phase include search, rescue and evacuation of people from areas still vulnerable and provision of temporary shelter, food, and water.
Other actions taken ring the emergency phase include initial disaster assessment, first aid and emergency medical assistance, restoration of emergency communication and transportation networks and emergency repairs to critical facilities. It can be of an immediate, short-term or protracted duration. Response efforts are aimed at minimizing the hazards created by a disaster. 5. 4 Recovery Involves returning the affected community to normalcy. During this phase attempts are made to encourage people to return to work.
Repair of infrastructure, damaged buildings and critical facilities is also done among other actions necessary to help the immunity return to normal life. Emotional recovery also occurs in this phase as families and individuals regroup and try to put their lives back in order. In many ways, the rehabilitation period is the most difficult for the victims. Relief agencies must be sensitive to varying degrees of need and must provide appropriate forms of assistance. The actual time p is often very difficult to define.
It may start fairly early and may last for many years. This term paper has vividly illustrated that it is impossible to effectively respond to every disaster without a plan. With this in mind, proper planning is inevitable and cause the types of emergencies a facility, community or a state might experience may change over time, periodic review of the plan, preparation for the unexpected and communication with a wide range of professionals at all levels are essential to mitigate damage and facilitate recovery.