By and large, fixed assets are the assets that can non be changed to be hard currency easy. Fixed assets are besides called non-current assets. It is the oppose side of current assets. Current assets are besides called liquid assets. Normally, fixed assets are considered as the assets that are can non easy moved. But its clearly definition is that the assets that can be used or lasted for more than one twelvemonth, which are considered as fixed assets. Many assets that can travel or can be moved are besides considered as fixed assts, such motor autos for a bringing company, planes for an air hose company, and so on. So we must happen a precise definition for fixed assets. Fixed assets can non be sold to terminal users straight. As stated in International Accounting Standards, fixed assets are assets whose future economic benefit is likely to flux into the entity, whose cost can be measured faithfully.
There are many types of fixed assets, such as land and edifices, motor vehicles, computing machines, furniture, office equipment, fixtures and adjustments, works and machinery.
Land and edifice for an endeavor that can non be sold to its clients straight and the land and edifice can supply working infinite for the endeavor to allow the endeavor brand merchandises or supply services.
Motor vehicles when are used as bringing vehicles are fixed assets excessively. Because they are non sold straight to the clients, but as the bringing means to supply bringing service.
Computers, furniture, office equipment, fixtures and adjustments, works and machinery that are used as one company ‘s vehicles but non as the company ‘s merchandises are besides fixed assets and their values are kept stable, which is different from merchandises or services.
2. Answer for Question ( B )
( & A ; deg ; ) Definition and account for Intangible Assetss
Intangible Assetss are the assets can non be seen, touched or measured, they are non pecuniary assets. Intangible Assetss are separate assets which are created by a longtime and/or atomic attempt. There are two types of Intangible Assets. One type is legal intangibles which contain right of first publications, trade secrets, good will, patents, hallmarks, and so on ; another type is competitory intangibles which contain coaction activities, cognition activities, purchase activities, and structural activities and so on. Harmonizing to the international standards2, intangible assets are defined as identifiable assets controlled by the endeavor without their physical substance, conveying future economic benefit to the company.
Legal intangibles all are determined by jurisprudence and competitory intangibles ‘ primary beginning is Human capital.
( a…± ) Problem in accounting for the Intangible Assets and the grounds for this
Because the Intangible Assets can non be seen, touched or physically measured, so there are jobs in the procedure of ciphering its value. Among the jobs, the most of import and indispensable thing to be done is to find whether an intangible plus is identifiable or unidentifiable. Is identifiable, unidentifiable, or good will
The undermentioned issues may be concerned in the Intangible Assets accounting procedure:
Are the assets acquired or developed internally
Make the assets have an indefinite or finite utile life ( and residuary value of the assets? )
Is capable to amortisation or damage testing
Should be expensed or capitalized
The ground why we should see these points is as below:
( 1 ) The intangible assets can non be seen, so to repair their value is really complex, so the first measure is to indentify if the assets are intangible and whether the assets are identifiable or unidentifiable ;
( 2 ) The designation of whether the assets are identifiable or unidentifiable is the footing for farther analysis and computation for the intangible assets ‘ value.
3. Answer for Question ( degree Celsius )
Enterprises account for intangible assets much as they are accounting for other natural resources or depreciable assets. The cost of intangible assets is frequently automatically allocated to expenditure in the procedure of the assets ‘ utile life or legal life, whichever is shorter, and the life will non be allowed to transcend certain old ages. The procedure of apportioning the outgo of intangible assets to write off is called amortisation, and companies about ever use the straight-line method to amortise intangible assets.
It is really frequently that sing the intangible assets as Goodwill.
We can utilize Income Approach to gauge the intangible value. Because the income by the intangible assets can bespeak the value of the intangible value. For illustration, if you have a merchandise trade name, this merchandise trade name can convey you about 100,000 Dollars one twelvemonth, but the same sort of merchandises without your trade name and has the same quality merely can convey 20,000 Dollars to the endeavor proprietor, all other factors are the same, we can state that your trade name, which is an intangible assets values 80,000 Dollars.
We can sell an intangible plus in market, and can see how much can be got by selling the intangible assets. The higher monetary value the intangible plus is, the higher value the intangible has.
As stated above, the intangible assets are from long clip ‘s uninterrupted attempt, in the procedure of the intangible assets formation, it must be much money or other things that can be calculated by money. So we can cipher the expensed cost of the intangible assets ‘ formation, so acquire the intangible assets ‘ current value.
Direct Intellectual Capital methods ( DIC )
We can gauge the intangible assets ‘ value by placing its different constituents. Once the constituents are determined they are able to be evaluated straight, either as an person or as an aggregative coefficient
Market Capitalization Methods ( MCM )
We can cipher the differences between an endeavor ‘s market capitalisation and its shareholders ‘ equity as the value of its intangible assets or rational capital.
Tax return on Assetss methods ( ROA )
Anenterprise ‘s mean pre-tax net incomes for a period of clip are divided by the norm touchable assets of the endeavor. The consequence is that an endeavor ROA that is so compared with its industrial mean degree. The differences are multiplied by the endeavor ‘s mean degree touchable assets to cipher an mean one-year earning from the Intangibles. We can split the above-average degree net incomes by the endeavor ‘s mean degree an involvement rate or cost of capital ; one can deduce an rating of intangible assets or rational capita value.
Scorecard Methods ( SC )
The intangible assets ‘ assorted constituents or rational capital are classified and indexs and their indices are reported and generated in mark cards or as graphs. SC methods are a small same as DIS methods, without that no estimation is made of the money-value of the Intangible assets. A composite index may or may non be generated.
We can utilize the intangible assets merchandising history to find the intangible assets ‘ value. Because if the intangible assets has been transacted before, it must hold a pecuniary value. So we can place the intangible assets ‘ current value by the trading history.
( 9 ) Capitalization
The advocates of the attack say that if good will is every bit important as plus as many believe, it should belong on the balance sheet. One job within capitalisation of good will is to find the proper sum of capitalisation. Nowadays pattern follows the remainder method.
One manner to rectify the abuse of good will is by the concealed assets method. By this attack, the extra purchase monetary value that enterprises wage for just market value of the assets is merely for assets that are hidden from the balance sheet. Hidden assets ought to be identified and recorded on the balance sheet, so amortized for their utile life. If they were, goodwill history may be much smaller than pattern at presnet and fiscal statements may be more utile.
( 10 ) Role within value concatenation
An intangible plus must be in certain industrial concern. Different functions in certain industrial concern values different. For illustration, in many technological Fieldss, the patent is the most of import intangible plus. So the patent in technological field counts more.
( 11 ) Existing market footmark.
If the market that intangible assets exist is really stable. We can analyse the bing market footmark to place the intangible assets value.
( 12 ) Write-off Method
By utilizing this sort of method, good will by and large is written off instantly against the equity subdivision of the shareholder, and the net incomes are retained by and large. Some people say that good will dose non belong to mensurable and it dose non hold true future value. It ought to be written off against shareholder ‘s equity.
And we must do the intangible analysis harmonizing to the IAS and IFRS ; here are some of the considerations for the IAS and IFRS.
As stated in IAS 38 the benchmark intervention for measuring, subsequent for the initial acquisition is the cost any accrued impairment loss and less accrued amortisation.
As stated in IAS 36, harmonizing to the Standard, damage of Assetss, intangible assets has to be reviewed for damage. Merely identifiable intangible assets can be revalued. This must be undertaken harmonizing to a term of ‘active market ‘ and one time this has be done ; the endeavor is necessary to do regular reappraisals.
Bothe IAS 22 and 38 demand that the intangible assets should be amortized on a systematic footing over the best estimation of their utile life. There is a debatable given that this utile life would non transcend certain old ages. Intangible assets are able to hold more utile lives ; otherwise, the IAS has non permitted an endeavor to subscribe an indefinite utile life.