Functional Requirements

1.Functional Requirements
Functional requirements define the fundamental actions that system must perform.The functional requirements for the system are divided into three main categories, Reservation/Booking, Food, and Management. For further details, refer to the use cases.
EXAMPLE 1.1. Reservation/Booking

1.1. The system shall record reservations.
1.2. The system shall record the customer’s first name.
1.3. The system shall record the customer’s last name.
1.4. The system shall record the number of occupants.
1.5. The system shall record the room number.
1.6. The system shall display the default room rate.
1.6.1. The system shall allow the default room rate to be changed.
1.6.2. The system shall require a comment to be entered, describing the reason for changing the default room rate.
1.7. The system shall record the customer’s phone number.
1.8. The system shall display whether or not the room is guaranteed.
1.9. The system shall generate a unique confirmation number for each reservation.
1.10. The system shall automatically cancel non-guaranteed reservations if the customer has not provided their credit card number by 6:00 pm on the check-in date.
2.1. The system shall track all meals purchased in the hotel (restaurant and room service).
2.2. The system shall record payment and payment type for meals.
2.3. The system shall bill the current room if payment is not made at time of service.The system shall accept reservations for the restaurant and room service.
EXAMPLE 33. Management
3.1. The system shall display the hotel occupancy for a specified period of time (days; including past, present, and future dates).
3.2. The system shall display projected occupancy for a period of time (days).
3.3. The system shall display room revenue for a specified period of time (days).
3.4. The system shall display food revenue for a specified period of time (days).
3.5. The system shall display an exception report, showing where default room and food prices have been overridden.
3.6. The system shall allow for the addition of information, regarding rooms, rates, menu items, prices, and user profiles.
3.7. The system shall allow for the deletion of information, regarding rooms, rates, menu items, prices, and user profiles.
3.8. The system shall allow for the modification of information, regarding rooms, rates, menu items, prices, and user profiles.
3.9. The system shall allow managers to assign user passwords.
2 Nonfunctional Requirements
Functional requirements define the needs in terms of performance, logical database requirements, design constraints, standards compliance, reliability, availability, security, maintainability, and portability.
EXAMPLE 1Performance Requirements
Performance requirements define acceptable response times for system functionality.

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The load time for user interface screens shall take no longer than two seconds.
The log in information shall be verified within five seconds.
Queries shall return results within five seconds.

Logical Database Requirements
The logical database requirements include the retention of the following data elements. This list is not a complete list and is designed as a starting point for developmentBooking/Reservation System

Customer first name
Customer last name
Customer address
Customer phone number
Number of occupants
Assigned room
Default room rate
Rate description
Guaranteed room (yes/no)
Credit card number
Confirmation number
Automatic cancellation date
Expected check-in date
Expected check-in time
Actual check-in date
Actual check-in time
Expected check-out date
Expected check-out time
Actual check-out date
Actual check-out time
Customer feedback
Payment received (yes/no)
Payment type
Total BillFood Services
Meal type
Meal item
Meal order
Meal payment (Bill to room/Credit/Check/Cash)

3Design Constraints
The Hotel Management System shall be a stand-alone system running in a Windows environment. The system shall be developed using Java and an Access or Oracle database3. Illustrate a timeframe needed to complete each task based on the requirements from question 2.(5 Marks)Answer Estimating time framesTo manage your time well, you should know not only what tasks you need to accomplish, but also when those tasks must be completed and how long they’ll take.
Making accurate estimates about how long a task will take is one of the keys to effective time management. Many management problems are the result of unrealistic estimates of how long it will take to complete specific tasks.If you estimate time frames accurately, you’ll be able to schedule work efficiently and meet deadlines:• schedule work efficiently – Accurate estimates about how long tasks will take to complete make scheduling a lot easier.
They ensure that you won’t have to keep changing your schedule. If you have a task that you accurately estimate will take six hours, for example, you can allot that time in your schedule and be reasonably confident you won’t have to change the schedule. But what if you didn’t accurately estimate the time for that task and allotted it only three hours? It would throw your schedule off, and you’d need to rework it.• meet deadlines – If you’re accurate in estimating the time it will take to complete tasks, you’ll be better able to meet your deadlines.
If you’re estimates aren’t accurate, you may need to ask to change deadlines or disappoint others who are relying on you to complete certain tasks. With accurate time estimates, you’ll also be more confident about setting deadlines because you know that the time you assign for completing each of your tasks is realistic.Time estimate equationIt’s important to estimate the time frames for your tasks accurately so that you can schedule all your work effectively and meet deadlines.
To go about doing this, you first need to know the requirements of each task and your experience with activities – both when they run smoothly and when they don’t – to produce three time estimates:• The likely time is the time that the task normally takes you to complete. It helps to consider the time it takes to complete the task without interruption.
You should also think about a time frame you would be comfortable with based on your workload, the task, and any external factors that may delay or speed up the completion of the task.• The shortest time is the least amount of time that you have taken to complete the task in the past. It may also refer to the shortest time in which you think you can complete the task if there are no interruptions or distractions.• You can estimate the longest time by considering what may go wrong when performing the task and then adding this extra time to the task’s likely duration.
This estimate should be based on your experience of this type of activity in the past, as well as on any foreseeable difficulties.You use the three time estimates to calculate the shortest possible time to complete a task based on an average of the likely, shortest, and longest times. Because in most cases a task will take the likely time to complete, this time is given more weight. You need to multiply it by 4, add the shortest time, and then add the longest time.
You divide the total by 6 to get the shortest possible time.One important thing to remember is that you must use the same measurements for each type of time. For example, if your likely time is a number of days, the shortest and longest times must also be in days. If your estimates are in different measurements, start by changing them so they are all the same. The time frames equation often produces a shortest possible time that is longer than the shortest time you put into the equation.
This is because the equation helps ensure that you’re realistic about how long things will take.To manage your time effectively, you have to estimate the time it will take to complete each of your tasks. Doing this ensures you can schedule your work appropriately and meet all your deadlines. To estimate the time frames for your tasks, you can use a simple time frames equation, which uses estimates for the likely, shortest, and longest times to calculate the realistic, shortest possible time that it will take to complete a task.
Identify and explain five (5) threats to your business that you need to consider for the success of this system.Answer: After assessing the strengths and weaknesses of your business for your business plan, look for external forces, like opportunities and threats, that may have an effect on its destiny.
These changes include

The appearance of new or stronger competitors
The emergence of unique technologies
Shifts in the size or demographic composition of your market area
Changes in the economy that affect customer buying habits
Changes in customer preferences that affect buying habits
Changes that alter the way customers access your business
Changes in politics, policies, and regulations
Fads and fashion crazes

List the threats and opportunities facing your business, and follow these guidelines:

When listing opportunities, consider emerging technologies, availability of new materials, new customer categories, changing customer tastes, market growth, new uses for old products (think about how mobile phones and even eyeglasses now double as cameras and computers), new distribution or location opportunities, positive changes in your competitive environment, and other forces that can affect your success.
When listing threats, consider the impact of shrinking markets, altered consumer tastes and purchase tendencies, raw material shortages, economic downturns, new regulations, changes that affect access to your business, and competitive threats, including new competing businesses and competitive mergers and alliances. Also think about the impact of expiring patents, labor issues, global issues, and new products that may make your offering outdated or unnecessary.

If you’re having a tough time getting specific, look back at the strengths and weaknesses, but this time, use it to list strengths and weaknesses of a competitor. You won’t know as much about your competitor’s capabilities as you know about your own, but you probably know enough to flag areas of strength and weakness.
Your competitor’s strengths are potential threats to your business, and its weaknesses present potential opportunities. Write down three (3) elements of risk and two (2) example each that relate to the project.(9 Marks)Answer. All risk management standards agree that the goal of risk management is to enhance the chances of success of the relevant endeavor.
However, each of them provides a different definition of risk: ISO31000:2009 calls it “effect of uncertainty on objectives,” the PMI “PMBOK Guide” has “an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on the project’s objectives,” and the preferred Risk Doctor definition is “uncertainty that matters.”Each description is true, but only partly so.
This matters because, until we know what we are dealing with, we cannot manage it in the best way possible:

If we use the ISO definition, then our first thought will be to focus on the effect;
If we follow PMI, then we will start from the potential occurrence;
With the Risk Doctor definition, we start from uncertainty.Each of these — the effect, the event and the uncertainty — is a component of risk, but on its own is not a risk.

Even taken in pairs they do not provide the full picture:

an effect plus an event is an issue;
an event plus an uncertainty is a prediction;• an uncertainty plus and effect is a concern.

It is only when you put all three together that you can see what a risk is made of, and use this information to decide on what, if anything, to do about it. Of course, this then requires a longer definition, but the goal enhancing the chances of success is worth the effort.But what is “success”? It is more than simply “meeting objectives;” it must also include the condition of “complying with project constraints” in order for the final result to remain within scope.
Given this clarification, a more complete definition is: “Risk consists of three parts: an uncertain situation, the likelihood of occurrence of the situation, and the effect (positive or negative)that the occurrence would have on project success.”The three-part definition helps with three important stages of the risk management process:
In 1.risk identification, it supports the structured description of a risk (“risk metalanguage”) in the form: “Because of , may occur, leading to In 2.risk evaluation, knowledge of potential causes allows you to evaluate the likelihood; identification of effects provides a basis for quantifying the impact.In 3 risk response planning, the different parts of the definition suggest different response approaches:

for threat avoidance, understanding the situation may allow you to stop it happening or protect against its results;
understanding the situation can also be used to help us exploit opportunities;
in risk transfer or sharing, we seek a partner better equipped to address the effect;
for threat reduction or opportunity enhancement, we focus on the effect and/or the likelihood;
in risk acceptance, any contingency plan has to address the effect.

Including these three components when you describe risks (the uncertainty, the event and the effect) will help everyone involved in risk management to take account of these three important aspects of risk, and act on them to enhance the chances of success.EXAMPLETwo examples of Managing risk in hote

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