GUIDLINES? FOR? WRITING? A? RESEARCH? PAPER? ? ? RESEARCH? (Where? to? find? primary? and? secondary? material)? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Evaluate? sources? you? find? according? to? authority,? accuracy,? and? currency.? ? ? PLAGIARISM? (How? not? to? use? research? material)? ? University? of? Innsbruck? library? (ALEPH? library? catalogue)? Humanities? library? (Bruno? Sander? Haus,? ground? floor)? Databases:? Many? databases? can? only? be? accessed? via? the? university? network.? Use? a? computer? at? the? university? or? install? a? VPN? client? to? log? on? to? the? system.? You? find? the? portal? to? access? databases? on? the? university? ibrary? website:? http://ub. uibk. ac. at.? Some? databases? provide? full? text? material,? others? provide? sources? for? articles? and? books? which? you? have? to? cross? check? with? the? library? holdings.? The? most? important? databases? for? research? in? American? Studies? are:? o MLA? International? Bibliography? o Metalib? o JSTOR? o Academic? Search? Premier? (via? EBSCO? host)? o Contemporary? Authors? o Literature? Online? o Periodicals? Index? Online? Video? Archive:? The? Department? of? American? Studies? has? its? own? video? archive? where? DVDs? and? videos? can? be? checked? out? free.? Check? the? department’s? ebsite? for? more? information.? Internet:? Well? used,? the? Internet? can? be? a? great? source? for? your? research.? However,? always? double? check? the? quality? of? websites,? the? provider,? and? the? author’s? expertise? and? authority.? The? rule? of? thumb? is:? If? you? cannot? find? all? the? information? you? need? for? a? complete? and? decent? bibliographic? entry,? it? is? not? a? source? worth? using.? Plagiarism? is? the? use? of? other? people’s? research? achievements? or? ideas? and? passing? them? on? as? your? own? or? using? them? without? proper? acknowledgement.? Sources? must? be? provided? for? direct? quotes,? ummaries,? and? paraphrases? of? other? people’s? work? or? ideas.? For? details? on? how? to? avoid? plagiarism? see? chapter? 2? of? the? MLA? Handbook.? Course? instructors? have? access? to? tools? that? reveal? plagiarism.? Students? who? plagiarize? will? be? failed.?? ? ? TOPIC/THESIS? (What? your? paper? should? focus? on)? ? Before? you? start? writing:? ? Find? a? topic? ? Choose? a? focus? ? Phrase? a? research? question? ? Phrase? your? thesis? statement? (which? should? be? included? in? your? introduction)? Information? that? is? not? important? for? your? thesis? statement? does? not? belong? in? your? paper.? Therefore,? void? lengthy? information? about? authors,? plots,? characters,? periods,? genres,? etc.? Focus? on? information? that? answers? your? research? question(s)? and? that? is? essential? to? prove? your? thesis? statement.? ? ? FORMAT? (What? you? paper? should? look? like? when? you? hand? it? in)? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? c.? schwarz? Din? A4? format? double? spaced? (everything,? including? footnotes? and? bibliography)? margins? (standard? margins,? i. e.? 2. 5? cm? on? each? side)?? font? size:? 12? page? numbers? on? the? top? or? bottom? of? each? page,? preceded? by? your? last? name? The? length? of? papers? required? may? vary? and? is? efined? by? your? course? instructor.? General? guidelines? are? 10? 15? pages? (3,000? 5,000? words)? for? proseminar? papers,? 15? 20? pages? (5,000? 7,000? words)? for? seminar? papers,? and? 80? 120? pages? (26,000? 40,000? words)? for? diploma? theses.? Before? you? start? writing,? make? sure? o your? word? processing? program? is? switched? to? “English”? (in? menu? item? “Extras”? and? “Language”;? this? way? quotation? marks? will? appear? correctly? as? “text“? instead? of? „text“)? 1? ? o o the? spell? checker? is? switched? on? (in? menu? item? “Extras”? and? “Spelling? and? Grammar”? and? then? “Options…”)? German? auto? orrections? are? disabled,? e. g.? Word? often? auto? corrects? “its”? to? “ist”? (to? edit? this? function? enter? menu? item? “Extras”? and? “Auto? Corrections”? and? delete? the? entry? from? the? list)? ? When? you? hand? in? papers,? the? sheets? should? be? pinned? together? with? a? paperclip? or? simply? put? into? a? file? jacket.? Do? NOT? put? every? single? sheet? into? a? sheet? protector!? Do? NOT? put? papers? into? expensive? binders,? portfolios,? or? folders!?? ? ? STRUCTURE? (How? your? paper? should? be? structured)? ? Research? paper? with? chapters? Research? paper? without? chapters? ? title? page? ? title? page? table? of? content? ? text? ? introduction? o introduction? ? chapters? o main? body?? ? conclusion? o conclusion? ? bibliography? /? list? of? works? cited? ? bibliography? /? list? of? works? cited? ? appendix? (if? applicable)? ? appendix? (if? applicable)? ? Start? a? new? page? after? the? cover? page,? the? table? of? content,? and? the? conclusion? (and? the? bibliography? if? you? have? an? appendix).? Do? not? start? a? new? page? for? every? single? chapter!? ? Information? that? belongs? on? a? title? page:? ? title? of? the? paper? ? course? information? (title,? number,? semester,? name? of? course? instructor)? ? student? nformation? (full? name,? student? number,? study? code,? e? mail? address)? ? date? of? submission? ? (There? is? no? page? number? on? the? front? page,? even? though? it? counts? as? a? page. )? ? ? GENERAL? POINTS? TO? CONSIDER? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Try? to? be? very? specific? in? your? writing;? avoid? generalizations.? Stick? to? general? composition? guidelines,? i. e.? how? to? structure? paragraphs? (e. g.? usually? there? is? no? such? thing? as? a? one? sentence? paragraph? in? an? academic? paper;? start? a? paragraph? with? a? topic? sentence? and? build? your? argument? from? there).? Stick? to? the? academic? register? and? do? ot? include? colloquial? expressions? or? words.? Be? as? specific? and? explicit? in? your? statements? as? possible? but? do? not? state? the? very? obvious? in? terms? of? what? you? do,? use,? and? analyze? in? your? paper.? E. g.? do? NOT? write:? “I? am? going? to? do? this? by? analyzing? the? primary? text? and? consulting? secondary? sources? on? the? text”;? or? “The? final? chapter? is? followed? by? a? conclusion,? which? summarizes? all? the? main? arguments? brought? forward? in? the? discussion”;? or? “After? the? conclusion,? a? list? of? works? cited? includes? all? the? references. ”? Those? things? are? obvious!? It? is? ermissible? to? use? “I”? in? academic? papers? on? a? limited? basis? (e. g.? “In? this? paper? I? will? argue? that…”).? If? possible,? however,? use? passive? constructions? or? other? expressions? (e. g.? “The? aim? of? this? paper? is? to? show? that…”? or? “It? has? been? argued? that”).? Avoid? expressions? like? “The? author? of? this? article? thinks? that”? (use? “I”? instead)? or? “as? we? have? shown”? (if? there? is? only? one? single? author).? Make? sure? you? note? down? the? bibliographical? information? of? all? sources? you? consult? for? your? research? to? avoid? plagiarism.? While? you? do? your? research,? keep? a? orking? bibliography? that? helps? you? keep? track? of? all? material? used? and? allows? you? to? go? back? to? sources,? e. g.? to? check? quotations.? ? ? QUOTATION? GUIDELINES? (How? to? include? quotes? in? your? text)? ? ? c.? schwarz? ? Use? parenthetical? documentation,? i. e.? include? the? author’s? name? and? page? reference? right? after? the? quote,? summary,? or? paraphrase.? The? idea? of? performance? art? is? to? “turn? to? the? body? as? material? for? art”? (Goldberg? 7).? Note? that? the? punctuation? mark? goes? AFTER? the? parenthesis.? ? Always? use? the? exact? name? or? title? under? which? a? work? is? listed? n? the? bibliography.? ????? Parenthetical? reference? for? two? or? more? authors:? (Gilbert? and? Gubar? 127)? 2? ? ? ? ? (Rabkin,? Greenberg,? and? Oleander? 25)? (Lauter? et? al.? 1584? 87)? ????? Parenthetical? reference? for? more? than? one? source:? (Brown? 26;? Fukuyama? 42;? Armstrong,? Yang,? and? Cuneo? 80? 82)? ????? Parenthetical? reference? for? more? than? one? author? with? the? same? last? name:? (C.? Brown? 26;? M.? Brown? 52)? ????? Parenthetical? reference? for? more? than? one? source? by? one? author:? (Frye,? Anatomy? 13)? (Frye,? Doubt? Vision? 56)? ????? Parenthetical? reference? for? work? listed? under? title? n? the? bibliography:? (Special? Report? 3)? ? If? someone? else? is? quoted? in? a? secondary? source,? use? the? abbreviation? “qtd.? in”:? As? the? reporter? Casey? Burko? puts? it:? “The? story? speaks? to? us,? and? we? respond”? (qtd.? in? Buckman? 35).? ? Use? single? quotation? marks? for? a? quote? within? a? quote:? “‘It’s? a? good? thing? we? stopped,’? the? dark? man? said? huskily”? (Gardner? 47).? ? If? a? direct? quotation? is? longer? than? three? lines,? set? it? apart:? ? The? following? quote? illustrates? the? transcendence? of? time? through? literature:? ? We? read? the? verses? of? one? of? the? great? English? oets,? of? Chaucer,? of? Marvell,? of? Dryden,? with? the? most? modern? joy? –? with? a? pleasure,? I? mean,? which? is? in? great? part? caused? by? the? abstraction? of? all? time? from? their? verses.? (Emerson? 50? 51)? ? ? ? ? Note? that? the? punctuation? mark? goes? BEFORE? the? parenthetical? reference? in? this? case? and? that? NO? quotation? marks? are? used.? ? Punctuation? marks? with? quotations? o No? punctuation? if? the? quote? is? part? of? the? sentence:? People? consider? watching? TV? news? as? a? “form? of? modern? civic? duty”? (Lewis? 26).? o Colon? or? comma? if? it? is? independent? from? the? structure? of? he? main? sentence:? Schopenhauer? holds? a? bold? view:? “Music? […]? is? in? the? highest? degree? a? universal? language”? (qtd.? in? Nietzsche? 99).? “Music,”? according? to? Schopenhauer,? “[…]? is? in? the? highest? degree? a? universal? language”? (qtd.? in? Nietzsche? 99).? ? Alterations? to? original? quotes:? o Leaving? something? out:? […]? He? notes? that? “we? read? the? verses? […]? with? the? most? modern? joy”? (Emerson? 50)? o Adding? something:? [addition]? Even? harsh? critics? acknowledge? that? “[s]ometimes,? it? [the? fictional? form]? serves? simply? as? the? framework? for? developing? an? argument”? (Faber? and?
Sherry? 831).? o Adding? an? emphasis:? italics? (emphasis? added)? “Ours? is? a? world? that? is? both? everywhere? and? nowhere,? but? it? is? not? where? bodies? live”? (Barlow;? emphasis? added).? o Indicating? an? error? in? the? original:? [sic]? “The? Business? of? Printing? has? chiefly? to? do? with? Mens? [sic]? Opinions”? (Franklin? qtd.? in? Burns? 95).? ? Footnotes? and? endnotes? are? only? used? as? content? notes,? i. e.? to? include? additional? information? that? does? not? belong? in? the? text? itself.? ? c.? schwarz? Also,? he? did? not? regard? the? professional? blues? as? a? threat? to? the? folk? blues,? but? as? ? development? of? the? same? tradition? under? new,? urban? circumstances. 1? ??????????????????? 1? In? “songs? Called? the? Blues,”? Hughes? emphasized? that? he? saw? the? blues? as? “city? songs? ? rising? from? the? crowded? streets? of? big? towns,”? and? as? “today? songs,? here? and? now”? (159;? Hughes’s? emphases).? ? Hurston? gives? a? list? of? the? most? significant? contributions. 2? ??????????????????? 2? The? examples? in? the? following? paragraph? are? taken? from? Hurston? 176.? ? 3? WRITING? AND? PUNCTUATION? GUIDELINES? ? ? ? ? Be? consistent? with? your? spelling? and? punctuation? throughout? the? paper? Do? NOT? se? abbreviations? and? avoid? short? versions:? I? am? (I’m),? we? are? (we’re),? do? not? (don’t),? will? not? (won’t),? cannot? (can’t),? they? have? (they’ve),? etc.? Capitalize? every? word? in? titles,? except? articles,? prepositions,? and? conjunctions.? Separate? a? title? from? a? subtitle? with? a? colon? (unless? it? ends? with? “? ”? or? “! ”).? “The? American? Declaration? of? Independence:? Narrative? Horizons? of? a? Text? in? Con? Text”? “Teaching? American? Studies? Abroad:? The? European? Experience”? Whose? Music?? A? Sociology? of? Musical? Language? Bringing? It? All? Back? Home:? Essays? on? Cultural? Studies?
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