To an historian studying the outbreak of the Kappa Putsch this Is a useful factor to take Into consideration; this source shows us the troubles of Germany, about the factors, which lead people to have an uprising. It is understandable when reading an extract that they had to act out, as they were feeling betrayed and angry at Germany. We can see that they the nation was feeling this way, as in the extract it is quoted that, “The Reich and the nation are in grave danger. ” Moreover, “people are only dimly aware of the approaching disaster.
Prices are rolling unchecked. Hardship Is growing. Starvation threatens. ” I know that Because of the demonstrable of the armed forces, there were nearly 200 paramilitary units around Germany by 1919. In 1920, about 12,000 members of the Fireworks marched on Berlin and seized the main buildings of the capital virtually unopposed, where they installed a new government. The German army did not provide any resistance to this Putsch. In spite of requests from Bert to put down the rebellious forces, the army was not prepared to become involved with either side.
We can see that the people lost faith In the government as With terrible speed, we are approaching the complete collapse of the state and of law and order. “And” The present government is incapable of overcoming the danger. “This was the pushing mint which made the people get involved, they now know without their input Germany as they know it will only get worse. However, in this new government, strikes were banned but the people carried on as their beliefs and motives suppressed the at hand and the opportunity must be grasped.
There is no other way but a government of action, the new government will ruthlessly suppress strikes and sabotage. ” Moreover ” striking is treason to the nation and the Fatherland. ” back up these points I have made. It is useful to know that even though the prices were raising that “Everyone should go peacefully about his work. Everyone willing to work is assured of our firm protection “people stood up for what they believed in and strike regardless of this point.
Overall, I believe this is a very useful source for a historian studying the outbreak of the Kappa Putsch of 1920, due to the use of literacy devices used it shows the way in which the German politicians presented their ideas and how they shared their opinions on this topic. (b) Using all the sources, and your own knowledge, assess to what extent the Kappa Putsch and other political uprisings represented the greatest threat to the Whimper Republic in the period 1919-1923. 5] Taking all of the sources into consideration, it is useful as we get a left wing response, a right wing response and an impartial response with the benefit of hindsight, therefore we can get a moderate opinion of the situation. From my own knowledge in the early years of the Whimper Republic, there were many political threats from left and right towards the new Government. The Separatists had extreme left wing political views (Communist) this group split from the SSP in frustration and anger at the Spud’s role within the Government.
The leaders of this Communist Party were Karl Libertines and Rosa Luxemburg. On January 1st 1919, the members of the Separatists movement rose up in an attempted revolution. The group’s leaders initially made this move. The new Government acted promptly and were certainly not stymied with their actions to bring this revolution to an end, As the two main leaders were killed whilst in police custody, The fret-corps (a paramilitary group consisting of former Servicemen) broke down this “revolution” with force.
This issue is acknowledged in source c – “The Whimper Republic faced its first threat, the communist-inspired Separatists rising. Another well known historian to back my points up is Broacher who states; – “Contends that the occasion fear of revolution from the left by the early Whimper government, led to their overlooking the much more likely threat posed by the right. We can SE that the Kappa putsch was the first attempt from the right wing extremists, to take control of the constitutional government. (They did this because they favored the restoration of some somewhat authoritarian, dictatorial regime).
The Kappa Putsch was led by Wolfgang Kappa The right wing extremists wanted the army to regain its numbers of men in a dictatorial regime. This was not possible because in the signed treaty of Versailles there was an agreement that the army must be cut and no more people could Join the army. The events occurred as followed 1920 about 12,000 members of the Fret-corps (in support of the Kappa putsch) marched to Berlin this is where they seized the main buildings of the capital with ease and no force was set up against them in these buildings was where they installed a new government.
The German army did not it he told the German army to put down the rebellious forces, the army was not prepared to become involved with either side. This is also due to the support it had from the army as many significant officers chose to support it the army-followed suit (General Ludwig and General Oldenburg. Ludwig had major involvement and he orchestrated an uprising in Berlin on March 13th. Army troops were sympathetic to the uprising, they took control of Berlin, and Ludwig proclaimed right wing government.
The putsch soon ended because SSP members of the government had called for a general strike, which soon paralyses the capital and quickly spread to the rest of the country. (The morale within Germany is strong here as they stuck together o end what was wrong “Kappa Putsch”) The rebels had little support in Berlin and in Germany elsewhere. It soon became clear that the Army couldn’t of been taken for granted, there was no universal support for the Whimper government also the government had limited means of dealings with uprisings of this nature and politicians were not necessarily safe in Berlin this shows a near end to the Kappa Putsch.
After four days of this political uprising and after putting Berlin on a stand still, with no/little support it was clear that Wolfgang Kappa and his government gained no real authority and they fled the city. There is evidence of this in sources b and c : “A military putsch has started. The mercenaries, who were afraid that their Fireworks regiments would be disbanded, have attempted to overthrow the Republic and establish a dictatorial government with Kappa and General von L;twits at its head. ” And in 1920, came a second attempt to overthrow the Republic, this time by the right wing Kappa Putsch. It is stated in source C that A brief period of relative calm followed, only to be disrupted in 1923 by hyperinflation that threatened economic chaos and undermined the government’s reputation. The Communists were overcautious during the mass protests of 1923 and acted too late in the “German October” of 1923″ this is a big threat to Germany both politically and economically as well as destroying even more of the remaining morale. The hyperinflation crisis increased support for the more extremist parties such as the Nazis would use the hyperinflation crisis to portray their beliefs on how a country should be run.
This was very threatening towards the Whimper republic/government propaganda against the government damaged it and lost supporters. The next political uprising to occur was the Munich putsch, which took place from 8-9 November 1923. As the economy floundered and the government struggled to cope with the turmoil, a group of Right Wing politicians in Bavaria planned to take this opportunity to overthrow the government. This event is iconic as it was the first event that Hitler is introduced. However, The Nazis were far too weak on their own to stage any kind of political takeover.
It was the need for allies, which led Hitler into negotiations with the right wing Government leaders Kara, Kisser and Lows who had planned this uprising to commence. The Munich Putsch took place from 8-9 November 1923. Reasons behind their rebellious behavior were the developing crisis in Germany in 1923. Due to the Franco-Belgian occupation of the Rue as they took payment in kind, passive resistance, hyperinflation and “The German October,” Kara and Lows blamed most the republican regime with a “March on Berlin” from Munich.
They lacked faith in this political stunt/ uprising and therefore, they decided to abandon the plan but Hitler wanted to proceed with the Nazis they took control of a large rally, which Kara was addressing in one of Eunuch’s beer halls and declared a “national revolution. Under pressure from the Nazis and Hitler Kara and Lows appeared to co-operate, but General Sect, the chief of the Army Command who was suspicious of Hitler, used his powers to command the armed forces to resist the putsch.
The police were notified and the police and a gun battle followed informed the army about this uprising on the day of the putsch the Nazis marched on but were met. In this putsch inn this putsch 16 Nazi supporters were killed and the uprising was easily suppressed. Most of the Nazi leadership were arrested and then put on trial for reason; leading sympathizers including General Ultrasound was also arrested. The consequences of the Munich putsch were probably of the more significance than the uprising it’s self.
At Hitter’s trial, he was given special treatment as was allowed to make long speeches to explain his reasons. Hitler is well known for many terrible things but I believe the most dangerous is his talking skill; Hitler has an orator characteristic therefore, he can easily convince people. This skill transformed him from a little known politician into a champion of the right wing. This is mentioned in source c. Finally, in November 1923, came another right-wing assault, the Munich Putsch led by Doll Hitler.
The Whimper Republic survived because the extremist forces of both Left and Right failed to attract much support and were both divided and disorganized. ” Using all the sources, and my own knowledge, I have assessed to what extent the Kappa Putsch and other political uprisings represented the greatest threat to the Whimper Republic in the period 1919-1923, it is clear to see that this was not the best time for the Whimper Republic as they faced a lot of opposition from the angered and betrayed Germans