– Human Needs and Motivation

Unit 3: Module 3 – Human Needs and Motivation

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The human resource frame is based on a variety of assumptions that affect leadership following this method. Human resource leaders emphasize the importance of people. They endorse the view that the central task of management is to develop a good fit between people and organizations. They believe in the importance of coaching, participation, motivation, teamwork, and good interpersonal relations. A good leader is a facilitator and participative manager who supports and empowers others (Bolman & Deal, 2009, pp.121–122).

Human needs are the core of this frame. Different authors have proposed different approaches to address human needs and relate them to motivation to perform better. Two of such approaches are Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y.

Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2009). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Unit 3: Module 3 – Human Resources Management

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While using the human resource frame, there are human resource strategies that can be utilized for managing people and making organizations better and more productive places to work. A few of such strategies that managers can use follow here:

· Build and implement a long-term human resource philosophy.

· Hire the right people.

· Keep those employees who are really making the difference.

· Create development opportunities for them.

· Empower the employees.

· Be prepared to promote diversity in terms of gender, ethnic groups, and culture.

Those strategies may be combined to create a solid comprehensive block with a long-term commitment. The common barriers in the process of implementing such strategies follow here:

· Reluctance of the management team in implementing them

· Lack of or poor communication of changes

· Lack of interpersonal skills among the management team

· Disruption of established patterns and relationships

Unit 3: Module 3 – Diversity in the Workplace

http://myeclassonline.com/ec/courses/AUO_files/AU_img.gif Diversity in the Workplace


In the modern world and globalized marketplace, the ability to understand, communicate, and collaborate with people from a variety of backgrounds is increasingly important. There is growing need to develop a workforce that is diverse in terms of gender, ethnic groups, cultures, and experiences. However, diversity in the workplace has its pros and cons. On the positive side, diversity increases the quality of group decision-making, because it increases the number of skills and different ideas in the group. On the other hand, diversity decreases group conformity, making it harder for groups to make decisions.

Two or more groups with different backgrounds and approaches are likely to come into conflict. To avoid that from happening, management can set an overarching goal that requires the competing teams to collaborate.

As the organization becomes more diverse, the manager is required to become more vigilant about providing same training and career development opportunities to all employees. In addition, managers must ensure that groups of minorities are not segregated in specific jobs or types of work.

Organizations depend on new ideas and innovation to succeed and to maintain their success. Diversity in the workplace can be helpful because hiring people with different human qualities sparks innovation through the exchange of different ideas and perceptions. In addition, diversity helps organizations reach the widest spectrum of customers, and function more effectively in a global economy.

Unit 3: Module 3 – Interpersonal Dynamics and Management Styles

http://myeclassonline.com/ec/courses/AUO_files/AU_img.gif Interpersonal Dynamics and Management Styles


People spend much of their time at work interacting with other professionals in the organization. Skills in understanding and handling interpersonal relationships are essential for good management, powerful leadership, and effective organizations. Interpersonal relationships in organizations most often go awry not because managerial intentions are incorrect or insincere, but because managers lack interpersonal competence. Things that play an important role in successful management and leadership are emotional intelligence, an effective management style, and a concern for a good group dynamics.

Until recently, IQ was considered the most important measurement of the level of intelligence in one individual and the main reason for success. Salovey & Mayer (1990, pp. 185–211), Daniel Goleman (1995) and many other authors proved that two components of intelligence (an interpersonal and an intrapersonal) are the real deal in terms of making a person succeed in the workplace. Emotional intelligence (EI) represents the awareness of self and others, the ability to deal with emotions and relationships. According to Goleman (1995), EI is more important than IQ to managerial success and individuals with low EI and high IQ can be dangerous in the workplace.

Different managers will use different management styles when facing different situations. There is a need for managers to be equipped with language and concepts to help them understand and manage interpersonal dynamics. Among some classic works dealing with management styles, one can include the following:

· Lewin, Lippitt and White (1939): Autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership

· Fleishman and Harris (1962): Initiating structure (to what degree a manager actively structures subordinates’ activities) vs. consideration of others (how much a manager shows concern for and sensitivity to people)

· Myers-Briggs Inventory: Extraversion/introversion, intuition/sensing, feeling/thinking, perceiving/judging; 16 four-letter combinations

· “Big 5 Model”: Openness to experience, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability

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