Integrated Life Science Study Guide Test #1/Chapters 1,3,4,19 1. The scientific method- A continuous process use to collect observationsk form amd test hypotheses, make predictions, and identify patterns in the physical world. pg 4 2. Biodiversity- the number of different species that coexist at a given place pg. 8 3. Dimitri Mendelev- Russian Chemist; created the Period Table of the Elements; 1st 1800s to arrange elements in such a way that the showed something about it properties. Elements made of atoms-Iron, Helium, Hydrogen pg. 10 4.
Creationism or creation science is the belief of the Judeo-Christians (Bible); Genesis; 2000+ yrs. The Earth is between 5-7000 yrs old. It’s the belief that it was created in 7 days. Science of Creation (most scientists believe) believes the universe is approx. 15 Billion yrs old. Earth-is about 4. 5 billio9n yrs old. No beginning and no end to this universe. 5. Stem cells- embryonic cells that can become any cell in a living organism. Source; ambilical cord Adult stem cell-restricting-almost useless to work with; medical science impeded by someones belief system 6. Work- force exerted over a distance
Power- work divided by time; how fast you do work.. Power =work/time Energy= the ability to do work; we get energy from food; converts to calorie-> glucose; cell->work; plants also use glucose to live 2 types of energy- Kinetic-energy of motion Potential- stored (fat) Force-a push or pull from kinectic energy; gravity energy-> glucose 7. Trophic levels a. Omnivores-eat both plants and animals b. Carnivores-eat meat.. ex. Lions, tigers, c. Herbivores-eat plants, ex. Cows, horses d. Plants- glucose e. Decomposers-bacteria; worms, fungi, provide food to make soil rich 8.
First Law of Thermodynamics- 1st law about energy f. All energy in the universe stays the same; it only changes form i. Glucose “sugar”-> energy cells-> carbon dioxide; ammonia 9. Calories-unit of energy measurement in food 1C=1000c Calorie-heat our body produces; energy inside the cell Calorimeter-measures calories in food 10. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics- g. Heat always flows cold ii. No such thing as cold- cold is the absence of heat h. No such thing as “Heat Engine” i. Overtime entropy increases iii. Entropy-a measure of disorder; a way we can measure how miixed up something is. 1. Types of animal insulation- fur, feathers, fat, blubber, skin, shells, scales, and blood 12. Entropy-a measure of disorder; a way we can measure how miixed up something is. 13. The science of Aging and DNA j. Lifestyle k. Dna l. Genetics m. Biological clock is about 110 yrs old Chemicals that age you are alcohol, tobacco, recreational drugs 14. Ecosystem- a system that includes both living and non-living things in a particular area (people) n. Non-living- chemicals; food o. Living-cells 15. Homeostasis- health, dna, good health, balance 16.
Acid rain- nitrogen, sulfur, ad carbon; coal + oil fired; electricity; generating plants; polluntants mix with rain; forms sulphuric acid; nitric acid; and carbonic acid- kills plants & trees; destroys auto paint, etc. 17. Photovoltaic cells- a device that converts sunlight (photons) into direct electric current Short Answer 1. Global Warming a. CONS-temperature increasing; flooding; sea level rising; quit burning fossil fuels b. PROS- 2. temp increasing during growing season which is what’s necessary 3. Ozone layer is 20 miles or more up. It protects us from UVA and UVB rays.
It’s getting thinner because of pollutants Smog is a layer created from automobiles and factories- near the earth-harmful 4. Landfills are considered “biological recyclers” because 5. The 6 characteristics shared by all ecosystems are pg. 391 c. Every ecosystem consists of both living and nonliving parts d. Energy flows through ecosystems e. Matter is recycled by Ecosystems f. Every organism occupies an Ecological Niche g. Stable Ecosystems achieve a balance among their populations h. Ecosystems are not permanent, but change over time 6.
Four dimensions as described in the Second Law of Themodynamics pg. 88 i. East or west j. North or south k. Up or down l. Time 7. Creationists believe that evolution does violate this law because life is highly ordered, it could not have arisen spontaneously without violating the 2nd law. Scientists disagree and believe that all you need to make the evolution of life consistent with the 2nd law is that the order observed in living things must be offset by a greater amount of disorder in the sun. pg. 88 8. 3 ways that heat is transferred is through conduction, convection, and radiation. Example of: pg. 6 Conduction- Convection-air rising above a radiator or toaster; motion of the Earth’s Radiation-a fire or electric heater 9. Celery makes you lose more calories than you gain because it goes back to the principal that if we take in less energy than we expend, energy must be removed from storage to meet the defecit and the amt of body fat decreases. 10. Our food in the USA is cheaper and much richer than most other countries. We tend to eat in larger portions than we should. Biologically, we clone our foods and inject them with hormones and chemicals to keep the supply steady and to keep costs low. 1. 5 Questions to ask when confronted with other kinds of psuedosciences are: pg. 12 m. Are the “facts” true as stated? n. Is there an alternative explanation? o. Is the claim falsifiable? p. Have the claims been rigorously tested? q. Do the claims require unreasonable changes in accepted ideas? 12. Peer review is a system by which the editor of a scientific journal submits manuscripts considered for publication to a panel of knowledgeable scientis wh, in conidence, evaluate the manuscript for mistakes, misstatements, or shoddy procedures.
Following the review, if the manuscript is to be published, it is returned to the author with a list of modiciations and corrections to be completed. pg. a34 13. Arrow of Time is The uniform and unique direction associated with the apparent inevitable flow of time into the future. Pg 88 14. The 3 major polluntants that make up urban pollution are nitrogen oxides, sulfur compounds, and hydrocarbons. Pg. 399