Leadership Style Essay

The cross-cultural literature emphasizes the strong connection between culture and leadership behaviors. There are important reasons to investigate the impact of national culture on leadership styles in today’s world. The old view that the leadership is identical all over the world is now being displaced with the standpoint that the leadership behaviours, attitudes and values differ because of the different national cultures (Boyacigiller and Adler, 1991; Hofstede, 1980).
Many researchers assert that the style and effectiveness of the leaders vary vastly as a result of the cultural forces in which leaders work. While some scientists maintain the thesis that universal leadership behaviour exists (Bass and Avolio, 1993; Dorfman and Ronen, 1991), other asserts that unique cultural characteristics such as language, religion and values determine different leadership styles in different societies (Hofstede, 1993, Ronen and Shenkar, 1985, Triandis, 1993). In the same time some scholars give evidence for the validity of both of the two theories (Dorfman, 1997, Bass, 1990).
National culture The purpose of this paper is to show whether the leadership style is determined by the national culture in some aspect. To show this relation firstly we have to clarify the meaning of these terms – leadership style and national culture. One of the most prominent researchers in the field of culture is Geert Hofstede. According to him “culture is the collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes the members of one human group from another” (Hofstede, 2004). Another researcher in this field is Robert House.

He describes culture for his GLOBE research project as follow: “Shared motives, values, beliefs, identities and interpretations or meanings of significant events that result from common experiences of members of collectives and are transmitted across age generations” (House, 2002). It is clear that the notion “culture” is very flexible term but the core of the meanings of all different definitions is however the same. All possible definitions which are at the root of the term culture basically share one and the same.
The term culture can be described as a group of people which share similar traditions, values and beliefs. In this paper also the term national culture is described as culture of a definite nation. It should however be noticed that culture is not always confine within borders of one country. Even in the borders of a specific country cultures may vary. Obviously culture is a very extensive term but all the different definitions of culture can be summarized in some way and culture can be described as shared set of values.
A good way to make a careful study of this topic is to use Hofstede’s model of “national culture”. According to Hofstede, the nationalities can be classified by five prominent dimensions: 1) individualism-collectivism, 2) uncertainty avoidance, 3) power distance and 4) masculinity, long-term orientation. These five dimensions are confirmed by gathered data from many different sources (Hofstede, 2001). The analysis made by Sondergaard showed that the dimensions of Hofstede are largely corroborated (Sondergaard, 1994).
Hofstede’s concept of power distance shows how the different types of leadership behaviours are preferred within a particular culture. High power distance may lead to very autocratic, controlling type of leadership, while a low power distance may give a rise to a more democratic approach. Hofstede found that in countries with low power distance, employees preferred consultative manager. Whereas in countries with high power distance, individuals preferred autocratic, persuasive or majority-voted democratic leader. The second Hofstede’s cultural dimension is so called uncertainty avoidance.
It shows to what extend a particular culture is tolerant toward ambiguity and uncertainty. Low uncertainty avoidance may lead to a more laissez-faire leadership, while high uncertainty avoidance may lead to a more bureaucratic and controlling leadership. The individualism-collectivism dimension propound that high individualism may lead to a more competitive type of leadership, whereas high collectivism may lead to a more consultative behaviour. The masculinity dimension suggests that high masculinity means-a country experiences a higher degree of gender differentiation.
In such cultures, males tend to dominate a significant portion of the society and power structure. A low masculinity score indicates that the society has a lower level of differentiation and inequity between genders. In these cultures, females are treated equally to males in all aspects of the society. Long term-orientation: This fifth dimension is added by Hofstede later on. It measures the degree to which people are long-term oriented. This can be interpreted in this way: whether people think more for today and the present or they are living toward the future.
Hofstede’s cultural research can be viewed as one of the leading cultural researches in the world and his dimensions are used all over the world today. Another researcher who gives his contribution for better explanation of the national cultures around the world is Shalom Schwartz. He made his research in 1990. At first the study is composed of 20 countries but it has been enlarged through the years. Schwartz’s research is conducted among schoolteachers and university students. Schwartz measure culture using the following three bipolar dimensions.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Leadership Style Essay
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay
Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Live Chat 1 763 309 4299EmailWhatsApp

Order your essay today and save 15% with the discount code GINGER