Managing Innovations in Firms

The dilemma of innovation management – there is a fundamental tension between the need for stability and the need for creativity: 1. Companies require stability and static routines to accomplish daily tasks efficiently and quickly. This enables the organisation to compete today 2. companies also need to development new ideas and new products to be competitive in the future. Hence they need to nurture a creative environment where ideas can be tested and development. B.
Managing uncertainty 1. pearson’s uncertainty map – pearson’s uncertainty map (pearson, 1991) provides a framework for analysing and understanding uncertainty and the innovation process. -gambar : hal 78 – quadrant 1 :”exploratory research” or “blue sky” research, because the work sometimes seems so far removed from reality that people liken it to working in the clouds! These activities often involve working with technology that is not fully understood and where potential product or market have also not been identified. quadrant 2 : this type of activity is often referred to as development enginerring and is an ongoing activity within manufacturing companies which are continually examining their production process, looking for efficiencies and ways to reduce costs. -quadrant 3 : in this area is uncertainty regarding ends. This is usually associated with attempting to discover how the technology can be most effectively used. -quadrant 4 : this area covers innovative activity where there is most certainty.
In these situations activities may be dominated by improving existing products or creating new product through the combination of a market opportunity and technical capability. C. organisational characteristics that faciliatate the innovation process – figure 3,3 p. 81 -figure 3,4 p. 82 – table 3. 2 summary of the organisational characteristics that faciliate the innovation process 1. growth orientation : commitment to long term growth rather than short term profit.

2. organisational heritage and innovation experience : widespread recognition of thevalue of innovation 3. vigilance nd external links : the ability of the organisation to be aware of its threats and opportunities 4. commitment to technology and R&D intensity : the willingness to invest in the long term development technology 5. acceptance of risks : the willingness to include risky opportunities in a balance portofolio 6cross-fuctional cooperation and coordination within organisational structure : mutual respect among individuals and a willingness to work together accross fuctions 7. receptivity : the ability to be aware of, to identify and to take effective advantage of externally developed technology 8. pace for creativity : an ability to manage the innovation dilemma and provide room for creativity 9.
strategy towards innovation : strategic planning and selection of technologies and markets 10. coordination of a diverse range of skills : developing a marketable product requires combining a wide range of specialisedD. Organisational structures and innovation 1. fomalisation : an increase in formalisation of procedures will result in a decrease in innovative activity 2. complexity : refers to the number of professional groups or diversity of specialist within the organisation 3. entralisation :refer to the decision making activity and the location of power within an organisation 4. organisational size : sizeis a proxy variable for more meaningful dimensions such as economic and organisational resources, including number of employees and scale of operations.
E. establishing an innovative environment and propagating this virtuous circle -figure 3. 7 propagating a virtuous circle of innovation 1. the organisation’s reputatution for innovation 2. attraction of creative people 3. rganisational of encourangement of creativity and innovation 4. development of innovative product 5.
a willingness within the organisation to accept new ideas 6. motivates people within the organisation and reduce frustation 7. high morale and retention of creative people. MENGELOLA INOVASI CHAPTER3 dalam perusahaan A. dilema inovasi manajemen – Ada ketegangan mendasar antara kebutuhan untuk stabilitas dan kebutuhan kreativitas: 1. Perusahaan memerlukan stabilitas dan rutinitas statis untuk menyelesaikan tugas-tugas sehari-hari secara efisien dan cepat.Hal ini memungkinkan organisasi untuk bersaing hari ini 2.
perusahaan juga perlu pengembangan ide-ide baru dan produk baru untuk menjadi kompetitif di masa depan. Oleh karena itu mereka perlu memelihara lingkungan kreatif di mana ide dapat diuji dan pembangunan. B. Mengelola ketidakpastian 1. pearson, Aos ketidakpastian peta – Pearson, Aos ketidakpastian peta (pearson, 1991) menyediakan kerangka kerja untuk menganalisis dan memahami ketidakpastian dan proses inovasi. -Gambar: 78 Hal Kuadran 1:, Auexploratory penelitian, AU atau, Aublue langit, penelitian AU, karena pekerjaan kadang-kadang tampak sangat jauh dari kenyataan bahwa orang-orang menyamakan untuk bekerja di awan! Kegiatan-kegiatan ini sering melibatkan bekerja dengan teknologi yang tidak sepenuhnya dipahami dan di mana produk atau pasar potensial juga belum diidentifikasi.Kuadran 2: jenis kegiatan ini sering disebut sebagai enginerring pembangunan dan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung di dalam perusahaan manufaktur yang terus-menerus memeriksa proses produksi mereka, efisiensi dan mencari cara untuk mengurangi biaya.
Kuadran 3: di daerah ini adalah ketidakpastian tentang berakhir. Hal ini biasanya terkait dengan berusaha menemukan bagaimana teknologi dapat digunakan paling efektif. -Kuadran 4: daerah ini meliputi kegiatan yang inovatif di mana ada kepastian paling. Dalam situasi ini mungkin kegiatan didominasi dengan meningkatkan produk yang ada atau menciptakan produk baru melalui kombinasi peluang pasar dan kemampuan teknis. C. organisasi karakteristik yang faciliatate proses inovasi – Angka 3,3 p. 81 Angka 3,4 p.
82 – 3,2 tabel ringkasan dari karakteristik organisasi yang memfasilitasi proses inovasi 1. pertumbuhan orientasi: komitmen untuk pertumbuhan jangka panjang daripada keuntungan jangka pendek. 2. organisasi warisan dan pengalaman inovasi: pengakuan luas dari inovasi thevalue 3. kewaspadaan dan link eksternal: kemampuan organisasi untuk menyadari ancaman dan peluang4. komitmen terhadap teknologi dan R & D intensitas: kemauan untuk berinvestasi dalam teknologi pembangunan jangka panjang 5. enerimaan risiko: kemauan untuk memasukkan peluang berisiko dalam keseimbangan portofolio 6cross-fungsional kerjasama dan koordinasi di dalam struktur organisasi: saling menghormati antara individu-individu dan kemauan untuk bekerja bersama-sama di seluruh fungsinya 7.
penerimaan: kemampuan untuk menyadari, untuk mengidentifikasi dan memanfaatkan teknologi yang efektif dikembangkan eksternal 8. ruang untuk kreativitas: kemampuan untuk mengelola dilema inovasi dan memberikan ruang untuk kreativitas 9. trategi terhadap inovasi: perencanaan strategis dan seleksi teknologi dan pasar 10. koordinasi beragam keterampilan: mengembangkan produk berharga membutuhkan menggabungkan berbagai khusus D. Struktur Organisasi dan inovasi 1. fomalisation: peningkatan formalisasi prosedur akan menghasilkan penurunan dalam kegiatan inovatif 2. kompleksitas: mengacu pada jumlah kelompok-kelompok profesional atau keragaman spesialis dalam organisasi 3.
sentralisasi: mengacu pada aktivitas pengambilan keputusan dan lokasi kekuasaan dalam sebuah organisasi 4.Ukuran organisasi: sizeis sebuah variabel proxy untuk dimensi lebih bermakna seperti sumber daya ekonomi dan organisasi, termasuk jumlah karyawan dan skala usaha. E. membangun lingkungan yang inovatif dan berbudi luhur menyebarkan lingkaran -Angka 3,7 menyebarkan lingkaran inovasi saleh 1. organisasi, Aos reputatution untuk inovasi 2. daya tarik orang-orang kreatif 3. organisasi encourangement kreativitas dan inovasi 4.
pengembangan produk yang inovatif 5. kesediaan dalam organisasi untuk menerima ide-ide baru 6. memotivasi orang dalam organisasi dan mengurangi frustasi 7. moral yang tinggi dan mempertahankan orang-orang kreatif.

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