Notes on Psychology

Mary Insinuators: Methods: Insinuators performed a longitudinal study in Uganda. She used home visits, naturalistic observations, and interviews with the mothers of the children, using an Interpreter. The babies ranged from 15 weeks to two years old when the study began, and were observed every two weeks for nine months In a natural environment (the family living room). A researcher observes a child’s reactions when a mother briefly leaves her child alone in an unfamiliar room. The way the child behaves during the separation and upon the mother’s return can reveal Important Information about attachment.
Four categories of behaviors were assured and observed: (1 ) separation anxiety: the unease the infant showed when left by the caregiver, (2) the infant’s willingness to explore, (3) stranger anxiety: the Infant’s response to the presence of a stranger, and (4) reunion behavior: the way the caregiver was greeted on return The observer noted the behavior displayed and scored the behavior for intensity on a scale of 1 to 7. Describe the Work of Bowl Bowl was one of the most influential theorists In the area of children’s emotional and social development Define “Attachment” Attachment is the emotional bond between child and caregiver.
It can be observed from around 7 months of age, and manifests itself as separation anxiety in the child when the caregiver is not present. A key element in attachment is parent sensitivity Name the 3 Main Theories of Attachment The Strange Situation Paradigm (Insinuators) which showed the different categories of attachment. Bellboy’s Internal Working Model, which showed how early attachment patterns resulted in internal schemas about relationships.

Continuity Patterns in Romantic Love (Hazy and Shaver), which showed childhood patterns were repeated In adult romantic relationships, and Social ND cultural Factors In Attachment (Van l]candor and Greenberg, Malarkey,et al, which showed attachment patterns were constant cross-culturally, but which were most prevalent varied by cultural parenting styles. Describe Insinuator’s “Strange Situation Paradigm” An experiment that measured the anxiety and behavior between Infant and mother through a combinations of separations and reunions.
Also featured in the “Strange Situation” was the introduction of a stranger, someone not known to the child, in order to observe the child’s reaction Name the 3 Categories of I OFF stressed when mother leaves, seeks contact upon her return. Ambivalent Attachment (type C): infant is distress when mother leaves, quickly seeks contact upon return, but then rejects mother Avoidance Attachment (type A): infant show no distress when mother leaves, avoids contact upon return, and is not afraid of the stranger.
Typical of babies of unresponsive mothers. Describe the 4th Attachment Category added by Main and Solomon (1990) Insecure/Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment (type D): child shows no reaction to mother leaving or returning. Associated with abused children. Research Evidence for Attachment Theory: Insinuators (1969) Agenda Project Observed 28 Uganda mothers interacting with their child through naturalistic observations in the home. Measured mother’s sensitivity to infants signals and needs, identified as 2 key factors in attachment.
If a secure attachment is formed the child will feel worthy of love and attention. This internal model tends to be reproduced in adult relationships. Explain Bellboy’s Theory of Attachment History The internal working model reflects an individual’s experiences about the accessibility of attachment figure, different experiences may explain different attachment patterns, as well as attachment disorders What does the study of Social and Cultural Factors tell us about Attachment?
Cross cultural studies tend to confirm the four attachment categories, but also show different distributions, based on differing cultural practices. Research Evidence for Social and Cultural Differences in Attachment: Van Condoner and Greenberg (1988) Looked at 32 studies from 8 countries, covering 2,000 infants. They found, for example, that Japan showed more ambivalent attachment than the West, but no avoidance attachment. Secure attachment was more common in the West.
Explain Continuity Attachment Patterns in Romantic Love The theory is that the patterns of attachment form in early childhood and that are translated into schemas via the inner working model repeat themselves in adult romantic relationships Research Evidence for Continuity Attachment Theory: Hazy and Shaver (1978) Compared attachments with parents to romantic adult attachments. Assumed inner workings model, and then compared self-reported attachment ACH of Insinuator’s categories were roughly the same.
Further, secure lovers described their relationships as happy, trusting and friendly, Avoidance lovers displayed fear of intimacy, emotional highs and lows, as well as Jealousy. Bivalent attachment characterized romantic love as obsessive, filled with highs and lows, extreme sexual attraction, and Jealousy Evaluation of Hazy and Shaver (1978) Supported idea that attachment styles could be found in adult romantic love. Some concern that sample was self-selected and disproportionately female. Forced choices may have skewed the data. However, a follow by Hazy and Shaver ten years later replicated the results.
Research Evidence for Social and Cultural Differences in Attachment: Mistake et al. (1985) Explained attachment differences between US and Japan. Japanese mothers put greater emphasis on close relationships, but urge children to develop their own identity and solve problems with a wider social group. US children are more independent, but rely on adults to solve problems. US shows more avoidance attachment, a consequence of independence, while Japanese children show more secure attachment and are more sensitive to group needs as adults.

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