Ethics and Research Paper Brandi McCord University of Phoenix (online) In my paper I plan to address the advantages and disadvantages of medical/nursing research and Identify associated dilemmas, analyze the history of ethics and research, and identify areas of conflict between research and ethics. Ethics is defined as the rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the member of a profession. Research is defined as any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
We live in a world today where there are new advancements in the medical field on a daily basis but there are many of advantages and disadvantages that can follow the research in which they do to get to where they need to go in their research and advancements. The benefits and risks of participating in a trial can vary depending on the type and purpose of each individual trial they run. Some advantages of clinical trials which are done for the purpose of testing medicine, medical devices and treatments that are made available for human health.
I have listed below some of the advantages in doing this: Those who they choose to use for these trials can try whatever it is they may be testing at the time free of charge. This can also include treating someone for a medical condition that otherwise could be very expensive. The medical team in which is conducting the study will closely monitor you You are getting the chance to be a part of medical research that could result in huge advancements in medicine or therapy that could not only help you but others as well.
You will be reimbursed for any expenses you may have during the study you participate in. You could be the one of the first people to have access to a major medical breakthrough for a treatment. Though there are many advantages there are also many disadvantages. I have listed the disadvantages below: The research or trial you choose to participate in may be or become very time consuming. This could take time away from you and your family. If you are currently taking any medication or may need to get put on medication you will not be able to unless approved to do so.
This could affect your health if they cannot approve what you may need to take. The activities you are accustom to whether by yourself or with your family such as drinking, sexual activity, sports, reproduction function and more could all be effected and maybe even put on hold for awhile. You also take the risk of your health being affected worse if you have a reaction to whatever trial you may be testing. Next I would like to analyze the history of ethics and research.
The history of research dates back to the first human subject being used in 1946, when an American military tribunal opened criminal proceedings against German physicians and administrators for their participation in war crimes and crimes against the human race. During this time the German physicians were performing medical experiments on concentration camp prisoners without the prisoners knowing anything of it because they had not gotten their consent to do such things to them. Most of the prisoners died or became crippled do to the things they experimented on them.
The result of this is what brought on the Nuremberg Code the first international document which stated that “The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential,” this made it clear to everyone that any person used in an experiment must give their consent and the benefits of the research should outweigh the risks. Research with humans should be based on the results from laboratory and animal experimentation. Research protocols should be reviewed by an independent committee prior to initiation.
Informed consent from participants is a must. Research should be conducted by medically/scientifically qualified individuals Risks should not outweigh benefits of the experiment. In 1979 the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavior Research prepared the Belmont Report. This report consists of basic ethical principles and guidelines that should assist in resolving the ethical problems that surround the conduct of research with human subjects.
This report consists of three basic ethical principles and their corresponding applications they are as follows: Respect for others (individuals should be treated as autonomous agents and persons with diminished autonomy are entitled to protection) Beneficence (human subjects should not be harmed, research should maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms) Justice (the benefits and risks of research must be distributed fairly) Application
Informed consent (subjects, to the degree that they are capable, must be given the opportunity to choose what shall or shall not happen to them and the consent process must include three main elements – information, comprehension, and voluntariness) Assessment of risks and benefits (the nature and scope of risks and benefits must be assessed in a systemic manner) Selection of subjects (there must be fair procedures and outcomes in the selection of research subjects) Though we have come a long way within our research of human subject and experiments being done allowing us to make huge breakthroughs in medicine today there are also many areas of conflict concerning this matter. I would have to say the area of stem cell research and using a baby’s cord blood has been one of the biggest areas of conflict I have seen. Though I really do not agree nor disagree with this subject it can save lives. In conclusion I would like to say in our research today we have saved and killed many lives. We deal with many advantages and disadvantages regarding research and the ethical side of it.
The use of humans for research has caused a lot of conflict throughout the U. S. I believe that though it may be unethical in some ways to use human subjects for research if it were not for them doing such things I would not be a cancer survivor. I do not believe in harming people by no means but I do feel if you have consent and the person has offered themselves to help save the lives of others then why not? We all want to lend a helping hand to another person at some point in our lives just think how it make those people feel who actually help save lives. References http://www. sanctr. gov University of Las Vegas Division of Research and Graduate Studies http://ask. com http://www. questia. com
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