The Burke-Litwin Casual model

Burke-Litwin Casual model is a model used by organizations to monitor organizational operations in terms of change and performance levels. The founders of the model were Litwin and some other people. In the 1980s Burke made the model more refined than they did (Burke & Litwin, 1992). Burke added some variables that make the model different from other models that had been in use. Burke-Litwin casual model is the latest model, more useful to organizations. The model has defined various variables that organizations should use for assessing their performances and changes. AT & T Structure.

According to Burke-Litwin model, firms should have sound infrastructure systems such as duties and responsibilities, reports and authorities, communication and socialization that are geared towards meeting the organizations goals, strategies and missions. AT & T Corporation is a company that was established in the 1885. The company mission is to provide telecommunication services locally and internationally. Their business strategy is to be efficient, affordable and competitive in the telecommunication sector as they maximize customer satisfaction. (Horton & Dorman, 2005).

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The company has been a provider of quality and highly reliable communication services for centuries. AT & T is well known for its wide range internet and multimedia services to both consumers and businesses worldwide. AT & T has more than two million customers in both private and governmental organizations, and in the domestic and international markets. AT&T applies departments and mechanistic style of management. The company is highly reputable in long distance communication services for both businesses and consumers all over the world. The structure of AT&T fits well with the Burke-Litwin model. (Horton & Dorman, 2005). Tasks and Skills
According to Burke & Litwin model, there are specific qualities and capabilities required for a person to fit in a given position (Burke & Litwin, 1992). An organization in business should therefore check on that when recruiting members. AT & T emphasizes on high skilled staff to provide quality services to the customer. The company has highly invested on technology, innovations, high skills and dedicated customer care. These are the core competence factors. Dedicated customer care has attracted an increased number of customers and integrated network as a technology use has made AT & T to improve on communication services (Horton & Dorman).
These factors makes AT & T fit the Burke & Litwin model Management practices According to Burke & Litwin (1992), organizations should assess how the managers deal with the other workers. For a success the employees should be given a chance to participate fully in developing an organization. In AT &T employees are allowed to take part in the production processes depending on which area they are specialized in. The organization calls for a teamwork and dedication. The management has always believed on partnerships to make them achieve their goals (Horton & Dorman, 2005).
For instance they partnered with CBS hence a participatory management. This fits with the Burke & Litwin model. Systems and Policies Systems are the policies and mechanisms used in an organization as standards to facilitate quality improvements. These may include communication, sales and marketing, production methods (Burke & Litwin, 2005). According to Horton & Dorman (2005), AT & T believes on quality productions to satisfy the customers, hence the need for employing high skilled people. Sales and marketing is done by the sales and marketing team to sell the products.
AT & T has specific charges for the customer services and also offer customized or personalized services to earn revenue. This is according to the Burke & Litwin model. Work unit climate This is the impression given by the members of an organization towards the organizational performance. This will in return influence their interrelationship (Burke & Litwin, 2005). AT & T Company has no specific social structures. AT & T has always considered employing domestic workers in large numbers as compared to the international.
The company always outsourced rather than train the workers for such services (Horton & Dorman, 2005). This will make the employees feel a sense of belonging and be committed to their work. This doesn’t fit with the Burke & Litwin model. Motivation According to Burke & Litwin (2005), this is an inward driving force that makes one take the recommended actions to achieve a required goal. Howard (1994), employees’ satisfaction will directly affect customer satisfaction. AT & T has no plans in place to ensure the employees are well catered for. The employees are not recognized to be rewarded for good performances.
This may make some of them loss focus on their responsibilities (Horton & Dorman, 2005). This doesn’t fit with the Burke & Litwin model. Conclusion. AT & T has a functional or product departmentation structure. This is because the company has its departments arranged according to the functions they offer like sales and marketing. The departments are also arranged depending products they produce for instance consumer products in consumer services department or segment (Horton & Dorman, 2005). AT & T has a culture for their operations to meet customer satisfaction and always work in partnership for quality.
Through quality products, AT & T improved on the revenue (Denison, 1990). Reference: Burke, W. W. & Litwin, G. H. (1992), A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management, 18 (3), pp. 523-545. Denison, D. R. (1990), Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Horton, W. T. and Dorman, D. W. (2005), AT & T Corporation. Securities and Exchange Commission Washington, DC 20549. From 10-K/A. Howard, A. (Ed. ) (1994), Diagnosis for organizational change: Methods and models. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

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