The Process of Mongol invasions of Japan As soon as Koryeo (Korean Dynasty) had succumbed to Mongolia, Kublai Khan sent ambassadors through the Koryeo Dynasty to convey the meaning of friendship in 1268. The Japanese government was encouraged to send a reply, but the Hojo clan who was shikken(ruler) refused and also didn’t send a reply. Later, the Mongol government sent an envoy many times, but the Japanese rejected the demands of Mongolia. Finally, the war started. There were three invasions of Mongolia.
The First invasion was in November 1274, the Mongolian troops first invaded Japan with Koryeo of Kimbanggyeog leading the Korean Dynasty army and Yuan Holdon leading the Mongol army, using 900 vessels ships and 40,000 military soldiers. They started to invade Happo (?? , Masan) and then Tsushima(? ?) in October 5th. After 9 days, they raided Iquique(? ?) and arrived at the Hakata seaport of Kyushu. Finally, they annihilated Hirado (? ) · Takashi ? Do (? ?)and then retreated the next day.
There is a claim that they retreated because of a storm, but it wasn’t the season for storms or seasonal typhoons from cyclones. Additionally, the Japanese don’t have the record to support this. It’s common opinion that the Mongol government had the purpose of establishing a country with military action in Japan. The second invasion was in 1281. Koryeo troops led the second invasion. They failed completely because of a typhoon. The defeat was caused by lack of awareness about the Japanese climate of the maritime.
There were other reasons. The first reason was stiff resistance from the Japanese Kamakura Shogunate who held the regime at the time. Secondly, Mongolia couldn’t focus on the conquest of Japan because of Mongolian domestic matters. Ultimately, the Mongolians prepared the third conquest, but there was a rebellion in the Song Dynasty. That’s why the invasion was cancelled. The results of Mongol invasions in Japan In Mongolia, The Japanese conquest was a good strategy from the Mongol government to develop.
During the process of the development and growth of the Mongol empire, Kublai Khan’s ruling was an important turning point. It was an opportunity to convert from a nomadic country to an agricultural country and also from undeveloped grasslands to autonomous central country. Even if the Mongols didn’t start the Japanese conquest, Mongolia was powerful enough and was equipped to become a world empire but the plan failed. If the Mongolians had success in the Japanese invasion, it would have built the most powerful universal empire in the history of mankind but it didn’t happen.
They failed twice and the third time they abandoned the invasion in the middle of the Japanese occupation . It caused them to feel pressure in the administration and the effect was division in the country. The gigantic empire disappeared just after 70 years. The Japanese had the biggest national crisis because of the large-scale invasion of the Mongol-koryeo troops. In Japan, the first Japanese occupation is called the ‘Inverse of Moon young’ and the second one is called ‘Inverse of Red Face’.
Japan succeeded in protecting the country during the first two big invasions but the economy suffered a vast blow. The Japanese could control the warriors by mobilizing them across the country during the Mongolian invasions. However, they suffered economic damages because of the huge military. On the one hand, they were affected in emotional aspects. First, they prayed for victory. This showed people’s shock and anxiety for the second invasion. Secondly, the ‘kamikaje’ word appeared. Kamikaje means god and wind. This reminds the Japanese that thanks to a typhoon they were saved.
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