U. S. History notes Red Scare 1919: I. Mass hysteria II. Why: unrealistic irrational fear. A. Expectations up and down: 1. Prosperity: People are doubling income (1915 income: 408$ yr to 1920 835$ year) 2. Post war recession B. Super patriotism/Slackers (you’re a slacker if not a super patriot) 1. Committee for Public Relations (C. P. I. ) (Creel Committee) – Read propaganda papers, pushed conformity and supported Boy Scouts for war. 2. Espionage and sedition acts A. Clear and present danger: speech that presents this is not protected. cant yell fire in a theatre as a joke when there is no fire. Not protected by amendment). 3. Radicals: A. Industrial workers of the World (IWW): nicknamed Wobblies. Loudmouth aggressive workers, and when on strike did it vigorously to prove their point. Opposed WWI.
Persecuted, charged with violating sedition acts, shut down and some thrown in jail. C. 1919 Incidents (convinced people that there are threats everywhere) 1. Bombs (mail bombs, one goes off in A. Mitchell Palmers yard so he constructed the Palmer Raids. People that went on strikes considered radicals). 2. Strikes A. Boston police: (19 police got fired for joining AFL so rest of boston police walked off the job) Coolidge convinced them they could not strike and had to go back to work, and most did. B. Steel: went on strike for higher wages, and better working conditions. C. Coal: went on strike for higher wages. 4. Centralia Massacre 11/11/19 * Wobblies thought they were going to be attacked so they opened fire on a parade that was taking place for Armistice Day. Wobblies kill a few men, all
Wobblies come out except for Wesley Everest who came out of the building firing at police killing one and he was eventually killed. (He was thought to be a crazy radical and a hero by some) III. Palmer Raids, Dec. 1919, Jan. 1920 – Thousands of immigrants are rounded up in cities from coast to coast, deported back to their home country or charged with a crime for being suspicious. Some 6-7,000 was rounded up in total. None of these people were charged with a crime when they were picked up, thus making it biggest violation of civil liberties in U. S. IV.
End of Scare: May of 1920 the fear of radicals comes to an end. After WWI conformity begins and we lose a lot of cultural diversity. – Palmer (attorney general) creates Anti-Radical Division and appointed Edgar Hoover to lead it and go after radicals. – John L. Lewis: – Harding died in 1923, buried in hometown of Ohio. Had poor judgment of character, but never accused of accepting bribes. His administration collapsed bc of scandals. Harding got sick in Seattle, but a book was written about how his wife poisoned him. Harding: I. Teapot dome II. Lucid Press A. Gaston means, “ The Death of Harding”
B. Nam Britton, The Presidents Life – She claimed to be The presidents mistress and have sexual encounters in the White House Calvin Coolidge: – became president after Harding died. He was a Puritan, serious individual, and gained nickname “Silent Cal” for being very quiet and not talking much. Famous quote of his “They cant hang you for what you don’t say”. He was thought to be mean spirited (Laughed at others discomfort and misfortune). His wife was Grace Goodhue (she taught the deaf & blind), very friendly and positive influence on Coolidge and contributed to his success. Happy as V. P. c he didn’t have to do much. I. Silent Cal A. Bg B. Gov. > V. P. > President C. Cleans house – cleaned out the white house, trying to get rid of the corrupt people. Brought in Harlen Stone to bring back pride in W. H.. D. Pro Business and Capitalism – He kept the concept of pro business, was an old form of Capitalism. II. 1924 election – A. Democratic disarray – Took 100 ballots to elect representative. John Davis was Democrat’s choice. Republicans won. B. Progressive Party – supported Gov. Fallett, received over 4 mil votes. Disappeared after 1924. C. Republican majorities III. Administration
A. Andrew Mellon – Old man, super rich, from Pitt, worked in steel business, owned coal, iron and steel mills. Tried to control aluminum market, didn’t work, but became even wealthier from this, volunteered service to help Republican Party to gain a positive environment. 1. Budget & accounting Act, 1921 – Harding admin. Part of modernization of American govt. 2. Revenue Act, 1921 – Coolidge admin. Established Tax rates, Cut top rate from 75% to 50% ended Excessive Profits tax. Tried to eliminate inheritance tax, didn’t work, doesn’t change lower income tax (realized this was a mistake). . Revenue Act, 1924 – Revenue acts created loopholes, made tax avoidance legal, but tax evasion was illegal. Coolidge Admin. Top rates drop again from 50% to 40%. Thought to trickle down and help the poor, and lowered poor income tax. Trickle down Economics came from these Revenue Acts. III. Fordney-McCumber Tariff Protective – 1922 (tariff is tax on imports) this taxed imports to protect domestic manufacturers. V. Balanced Budget 5. McNary-Haugen Veto, 1927, Over Production – estab. Commodity prices so farmers could make a profit. Congress passed this and Coolidge vetoed it. Controversial veto) Farmers started supporting other political leaders. 6. Hoover & Dept. of Commerce Consumerism Cont. I. Theory & structure: – Welfare capitalism: Trying to get better working conditions. II. Business as Religion – Bruce Barton III. Labor Reforms A. Taylorism * Frederick Taylor & two-motor studies B. Cellular Work Force: manufacturer’s organized their workers into groups called cells. Policed themselves, making it easier for people at higher position to have less people to watch over C. Pergs: Received bonus’s and pay raises for good work and got pension plans.
D. Company Unions: Yellow Dog – administered perks that went to union worker, not considered a real union group. * Councils: organized work force and dealt with stuff below management and relayed info. * Sports Teams: organized sport venues across America. E. Class Consciousness 1. Family structure a. Who works: husbands, wives, and kids do when they grow up and are old enough. b. Kids: Early childhood they sold goods to make $ for family. c. Gender roles: different sexual roles between men and women and cultural naturalism of sex. 2.
Middle Class Reformers: thought if middle class family’s had less kids they would gain a better middle class status. Settlement houses 1. Hull house: ran by Jane Addams, middle class woman, supported by philanthropy. Helped uplift working class. 2. Assimilation goods a. Class: taught English, etiquette, daycare for kids, abuse programs, and cleanliness b. Ethnicity: Different ethnic groups go about their lives differently and enjoy different leisure activities. I. Auto Industry a. Sig 1. 20th century 2. Spin offs a. Steel production rises b. Closed cars (glass and leather) c. Rubber production increases d.
Gasoline production increases and 4 strokes is mainly used for cars. e. Road: smoother roads were demanded. By 1920 $1billion dollars a year spent on new roads and $400 million a year on road maintenance. 3. Proliferation a. By 1912 – car sales are 150,000 yr. b. By 1921 – reaches 1 million a year. c. By 1930 – 23 mil. Sold and 1 in 5 people own a car. B. Henry Ford 1. Model T – prod. In 1908 and Model A produced in 1928. Added color to cars in 1928 due to competition. Sued a parts dealer bc Ford used the crates that the parts came in to build his model T car and they were randomly changed by the dealer who had no clue he used the wood. . Production efficiently and mass-produced on assembly line to help cost, wages and efficiency better. 3. Cost was 300$ a day and wages were 5$ a day. C. William Crapo Durant, GM – financier/investor not a banker A. Buick, 1904 B. 1910: Ads Oldsmobile, Pontiac, and Cadillac. C. Added Chevy (cheapest of these brands); acquires suppliers such as fisher body, Remy electric and DELCO. Cars at this time were self-starters, no keys used, just crank the engine and go. D. GMAC – General Motors Acceptance Corp. loaned you the money so you could buy a GMC. E. 1929 & Depression: Crapo lost GM and Durant owned it.
Crapo had the idea of building a super market, putting everything into one big warehouse to make it more convenient, but before his idea came to life he died in 1933. D. Impact of Cars 1. Accidents and Death: 30,000-40,000 deaths a year. 2. Pollution: invisible pollution from 1920-60’s was terrible due to lead in the gasoline. Removed from gas in 1970. 3. Morality – people’s morals changed w/the use of more cars. (Lovers lane, social events, statutory rape) 4. Autonomy: traditional; cars gave people more individual and reinforced their autonomy. Cars are so culturally significant and reinforce individualism.
IV. Radio Advertising: first mass media, by 1927 radio sales reached 20million plus a year. A. Psych Ads > behaviorist psychology: looking at people as a mass society, studying people and stimulus, measuring a response scientifically. Stimulus ad is a buying response. B. Radio: mass media – KDKA, 1920 – commercial station – 500 & 1922 – 500 radio stations across the country. 2 years and radio blanketed America. – NBC, 1926 – first radio network. Formed by RCA, General Electric and Westing House. By 1926 conglomerates start to squeeze out the independent radio station owners. Amos and Andy, 1928: comedy radio show, black ethnic humor. 1st show that acquired a single sponsor (Pepsodent toothpaste) C. Planned obsolescence – used engineers to create certain products. – Tech Shift: continually buying new technology products. Not really a new product, just a way to stimulate the economy by making people want to buy something new. Immigration & 2nd KKK I. Old and new immigration – Old immigrants were 19th century ones coming from Britain, Germany, Ireland and other Northern Englanders. New immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe (Italians, Russian Jews (Pale), and Slavs and Greeks).
II. Nativism & Restrictionist – A. Origins: 1. late 19th century 2. red scare: immigrant radical scare 3. Eugenics: fake science, ignorant people claiming a false fact. A. Madison Grant, “The passion of the Great Race, 1916” – refers to (WASP) White Anglo-Saxxon People who are going to ruin and change American culture. B. Anti-Semitism rises (anti-Jew) – III. KKK A. Rise in Atlanta, 1915 1. Col. Simmons – Runs the KKK 2. Birth of a Nation, 1915 – First recognizable movie. About American Civil War. KKK depicted as heroic in a sense. D. W. Griffith created movie reels and he’s a filmmaker. 3.
Edward Clarke – comes up with KKK costumes and KKK words. He’s in it for the money and business. B. Peak 1924 – peak of the KKK. 4. 5 Mil members and dominate 7 states (Ok, Cal, Chi, Ind. are a few) 1. Political Clout – 2. Rural and Urban C. Fall 1925 1. David Stinson, Indiana – friend of Indian govt. Ed Jackson, used KKK to enrich himself, raped secretary and she tried to poison herself and died a few weeks later and Stevenson charged w/2nd degree rape and murder. This was tied into KKK. 2. Other Factors IV. Restriction Legislation A. 1917 Immigration Act – starts process of restricting certain immigrants. . Head Tax – not free to move to America. 8$ was the head tax. 2. Literacy Test – proving you can read and write in a language. Didn’t want mentally incompetent people coming into the country. B. Quota Acts – limits foreign-born number of immigrants. 1. 1921 Immigration Act – 358,000 accepted (3% of 1910 census) (200,000 were N. W. Englanders). These were the new immigrants from S. E. Europe. 2. 1924 Immigration Act – 150,000 accepted (2% of 1890 census and 132,000 could come from N. W. Europe) CRIME AS ENTERTAINMENT I. Leopold and Loeb, 1924 – smart genius kids, lived in San Fran.
A. “Perfect Murder” – Bobby Franks was the 14 yr old kid they killed. Led him to a vacant lot and bludgeoned him to death. Leopold dropped his glasses at the crime scene. Police caught them and Loeb cracked first. Loeb was sexually attracted to Franks so that was his reason to kill him and Leopold was convicted as the accomplice. B. Defense 1. Clarence Darrow – Attorney of the 2 and he tried to convince the judge that they were mentally diseased. Became known as the insanity defense from then on. Both convicted to life in prison. C. Spectacle 1. “The Rope” etc. A film by Alfred Hitchcock based off the Leopold and Loeb murder. II. Hall-Mills murder, 1922-26 A. Rev. Halls and Mrs. Mills – bodies were found in a lover’s lane. No clear evidence of who did it. Allegations of Mills brothers killing them and Hall’s wife had killed them. B. Trial – only evidence here was the love affair between them 2. 1. Politics 2. Pig Woman – Pig farm was about a mile away. Daughters farmer was “pig woman” bc of her residence and appearance. She didn’t see anything just heard noise of a car/gun fire. Mother claims daughter is retarded and no one ever found out who killed them.
C. Spectacle 1. Radio – Halls and Mills trial was played out over the radio for the 4 year duration of the entire event and everyone was acquitted. III. Lindbergh Kidnapping, 1932 – famous pilot who flew around the world. Lindbergh and wife lived out in country. A. Kidnapped, March 1932 – Lindbergh son was kidnapped out of 2nd story room and a ladder and ransom note were left behind. Lindberg paid a ransom, but his son was never returned. B. Trial 1. Bruno Hauptman – German immigrant accused of crime. Wood used to make ladder was from Hauptman house. He was found with some of the ransom money.
Found guilty and executed. A year later the baby’s body was found. C. Spectacle 1. “Trail of the Century” – Charles Lindbergh went into hiding with his wife and they moved out of the country then back to Hawaii in a secluded area where he had to fly to get there. MOVIE INDUSTRY I. Tech Shift – movies offered motion pictures however it was 2D on a flat screen. Nickelodeons were first movie viewing attractions. Movies weaned people from nickelodeons to movie theaters. A. 3D > 2D – 1920’s shift from nickelodeons to movie theaters, attracting people bc its larger a larger than life, moving picture with music.
Started in the 19teens and became a cultural phenom. B. Motion Picture 1. Great Train Robbery, 1903 – lasted 8 minutes 2. Motion Picture Patent Co. 1918 – Located in New Jersey, tried to create a monopoly around NYC in the movie industry 3. Independents – they didn’t agree the Motion Picture Patent Co. so they packed up and headed west. 1st stop was Flagstaff, Arizona. Settled in a town north of L. A. II. Tinsel town: Hollywood’s nickname. (1912 – 13,000 movie places, 500 in NY. Attendance by 1922 40 million and 100 million by 1930. 1925 Movie industry was 4th largest. Birth of a Nation” recognized as first reel movie, had 12 reels, was hours long, made by D. W. Griffith. ) A. Studios: squeezes true independents out; Paramount, fox, MGM, Republic, United Artist’s & Warner Bros. ) Tried to profit from every aspect possible by vertical integration. B. Stars: typecast people; people gravitated to certain actors. Clara Bow “it” girl C. Formulas III. Scandals A. Fatty Arbuckle, 1921 – comedian in movies, despicable in real life, a person is killed of a drug overdose at his mansion, he is charged w/2nd degree murder and his movie career is over. B.
Mary Pickford & Douglas Fairbanks – she divorces her first husband and married Fairbanks, her movie career was ruined by her growing old. In 1 movie she played 2 characters at the same time. IV. Censorship A. “Do’s and Don’ts”, 1924 – limited what was shown on the movie screen. B. Hays Commission – Will Hays enforced censorship; sex and violence (shown euphemistically not realistically). Sex sells so nudity was pushed as far as possible to draw bigger crowds. Golden Age of Sports I. Recreational A. Golf – # of courses tripled in the 20’s. Green fees and equipment fees were required to play. . Private-Elites 2. Municipal – Middle Class (W. C. Fields) B. Bowling: Goes back to the Dutch. 1. Duck Pins – 1st form of bowling, usually they were attached to saloons. Not for families at first, men usually went and drank. 2. Gentrification – 1920’s bowling teams went from 5 to 40,000 and it was more family oriented and people went to have a good time. C. Baseball Clubs 1. Urban/Industrial – baseball players were factory workers. Sponsored teams, urban and rural would travel to play each other. 2. Rural – people could just travel around looking for a team to join. II.
Spectacle A. Golden Age of Baseball 1. Black Sox, 1919 – Chicago white sox accepted money from gamblers to throw the game and lose in the World Series. * Judge Landis – He had power over baseball to enforce rules keeping it fair and just. “Juiced ball” – after Landis stepped to power he supposedly juiced the ball making it easier to hit homers. (he kept Negros separate from white baseball) 2. Babe Ruth: 22 Yrs. – in the 1920’s he was a home run king. B. College Football 1. The Gate: 50,000 people watched first game. 20million was spent on football by 10million fans.
Bowl games were invented after the sport kept growing. 1902 Rose Bowl started. 1935 Sugar Bowl started taking place at Tulane. Univ. of Chicago was a founder of College football and they dropped it bc of the money and how famous football became and not the college itself. 2. Icons: Knut Rockne & “Gipper” C. Boxing 1. Promoter: Tex Rickand 1. Dempsey vs. Carpienteir – 1921 – this fight drew $1Million 2. Dempsey vs. Tuney, 1926 – Tuney beat Dempsey by dancing around and not allowing Dempsey allowing to get hit. $1. 8 million in revenue 3.
Rematch, 1927 “Long Count” Dempsey didn’t retreat to neutral corner and a long count was then given to Tuney to get up, which he did, danced around and didn’t allow Dempsey to hit him and he ended up winning. III. Sports & Class A. Working Class Baseball B. Elite College Football – designed to be a microcosm of leadership positions. You have to be tough. Expectations to be brave and go all out. * Amateur Ideal – WASP (ethnocentric) * 1910 NCA is formed to minimize the deaths and injuries around football, enforced rules and eliminated certain plays and added pads/helmets. * 1896 Amos Stagg forms the Western Conference. Referred to as “Ringers” (non-college student playing football). Now they are known as the “Big 10”. * NFL formed in 1920’s. George Halas was one of the founders. Became an owner, player and coach of the Staley Bears who changed their name to Chicago Bears. These players were working class men and college players. * In 1920’s College All America team played NFL all starts, but stopped in late 20’s bc NFL was getting to good and it was adults vs. kids eventually. IV. College Football Origins A. Anglo-Saxon Ethnocentrisms 1. Social Darwinism, Gilded Age 1. Herbert Baxter Addams – classic trained scholar A. Germ Theory” – a democratic germ theory the A. S. take with them wherever they go electing their race. Picking your scholars based on merit, i. e. : meritocracy. (Basically being born into a family of power) B. Tacitus, Germania – history of German tribes, a meritocracy. 2. Saxon Warrior Culture – this warrior type leadership establishes college football (choose the best to be display their talent) V. NEW WOMAN “1920’s” I. Middle & Upper Class A. Club Women – married women who formed women’s clubs (General Federation of Women’s Clubs forms in 1892. There are 500 members and by 1917 there are 1 million women club members.
B. Professional 1. Single – (Unmarried) 2. Role Model or Feminist? – not doing this to represent womankind just doing it for their personal reasons. C. Planned Parenthood – Margaret Sanger, middle class woman who tried to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Aimed at working class. This ends up being effective to the single unmarried women who stay childless and want to keep the job they have. II. Working Class “Flapper” – These women was flat chested, wore short dress and smoked cigarettes type of bitch. Rough language, went out at night, danced and had fun times. – Aspired to marry up into the middle class. A.
Peiss Thesis – working class women establish the working class phenomenon, trying to reform the working class women. Didn’t work to well so they picked up some of the working class ways. B. Middle Class 1. Freud Popularized – for mental health let your proclivities run free, to much repression results in bad symptoms 2. “Latent Hypocrisy” – Blatantly expressing ideas they don’t practice. Behavior as well as rhetoric that pushed culture. SCOPES TRIAL – trying to do away with Darwinism theory. Became known as the Butler Act. Teaching Darwinism in school was illegal and this passed in 3 states, Tennessee being 1.
I. Dayton vs. Chattanooga: Wins this trial. Dayton agrees to be put on trial if Dayton members are present at court. II. The Trial A. Judge Raulston: wanted to get publicity from this. B. Prosecution 1. Hicks and Bryan – C. Defense 1. Darrow & Malone, et al – famous lawyers from past cases. Malone is a sophisticate from NY. III. The Argument A. Prosecution – Limit – limit trial to simple Yes/No questions. B. Defense – Expand – expand the case based on speaking the truth and including constitutional exceptions. Against 1st amendment for speaking the truth. 1. “Greatest Speech” – C. Decision 1.
One Expert – Judge allowed 1 expert witness for future appeals D. The Monkey House – referred to Darrow & Malone’s decision to be the one expert that the judge would allow. 1. Cross-examination IV. Verdict A. Trial – John Scopes violated Butler Act and was fined but never had to pay the fine and the verdict was thrown out later down the road. B. Public Opinion – he wins in the court of public opinion, but was convicted in the court of Dayton. Aime Semple MacPherson I. Four Square Gospel – started a gospel in the suburb outside of L. A. church services were new, strange and she conducted herself like a movie star.
Became a minor figure in the 1930’s and died in the 40’s. traditionalist who tried to use modern technologies and it backfired. II. Sensual Debauch – III. Scandal Art & Literature, 1920’s I. Lost Generation – so many ppl were killed and it seemed that generation was lost. Referred to as the high culture A. Why so glum? 1. General Cynicism 2. WWI A. Age of Irrationalism – WWI makes no sense. Tactics were irrational, terrorism started and countries were thought to be a bit barbaric. B. All quiet on the western Front, 1929. Eric Remarque – everyone dies 3. Sartre Existentialism – brand of philosophy.
It means we exist and that’s all there is to life. Everything (religion, politics, etc. ) is all made up. The only lasting society connecting people is fiction. B. Any Joy? 1. Roaring 20’s 2. Behaviorist and psych C. Lit. A. Sinclair Lewis – critically acclaimed. Fits into cynical idea. 1. Main Street, 1920 – is about a woman who is married well and prosperous, but she is unhappy and runs off to a suburban town. 2. Babbitt, 1922- characterization of midwestern life. Became a midlife crisis story and he desired an affair. He was an unhappy individual. B. HL Mencken – refers to middle class as the booshwazee.
He falls off the charts and people get ignored of him in 1930’s (pro Nazi) he continues to edit supporting young writers, promoting the next gen of writers. 1. Baltimore Sun D. F. Scott Fitzgerald – novels are glum and cynical. He produced great American literature. Born in 1896, St. Paul, Minnesota and died in 1940. (Alcoholic). He had many failing business’s. I. Bg. & youth A. St. Paul, 1896 B. Princeton > Army – sent to Princeton where he started writing his first book “this side of paradise”. 1917 joined army. Didn’t return to Princeton just wrote short stories. II. Zelda Sayre – his wife whom he met while training in the army.
A. Southern Belle – B. Nervous Breakdown C. Jazz age couple – “Scott and Zelda” – they were drunk most of their lives, living the high life, appearing to be frivolous, she got sick, was placed in a care facility so Scott could keep writing and then he died of liver disease due to alcoholism. III. Career: * “Great Gatsby”, 1925 – secures his literary career. Its about Gatsby whose a WWI vet who acquires wealth. In the end Gatsby dies without accomplishing his goals and dreams. Told by a narrator on the outside looking in. About old money and new money. Sad generation story that fits into the lost generation era. This Side of Paradise, 1920 – also about the last generation. * Tender is the Night, 1934 – acclaimed and a movie was made out of it. It’s about a touching, loving family and the husband has a nervous breakdown that destroys the family. Drawn from Fitzgerald’s own personal life. * Short Stories – * Hollywood, 1939 – went to Hollywood to earn more money. He was a scriptwriter. Dies here in 1940, the last one he worked on was farewell my lovely. * The Last Tycoon, 1940 – published after his death. About Hollywood producers, scandals from the 1920’s Hollywood tinsel town era. IV. Evaluation
Ernest Hemingway: Split-Minded I. Bg. 1. Oak Park, 1898 – close to the prairie, spent all his time in the outdoors and skipped school. He worked for a living all the time, had a salary, didn’t just write. 2. Kansas City Star – was a stringer for the paper, trained as a journalist from ground up, bc hes an outdoorsman his intellectual curiosity draws him to WWI where he drives an ambulance and participates in some attacks. II. WWI A. Italian Front B. “The Wound” – He was on the front line when a bomb hit his squad and wounded him in the groin area, this wound was thought to have ruined his manhood by others.
He convalesces in a Italian hospital and this was the end of his frontline career. Went from here to Toronto Star. III. Paris A. Toronto Star – B. Expatriates – apart of this group, but also critique’s them. C. Serious Writings: – Men w/o Women, 1920 – (cult of masculinity – refers to flight from domesticity, relates back to Daniel Boone) Manly men doing manly things in a manly way, women are not needed. – In Our Time, 1924 – A Farewell to Arms, 1929 The Sun Also Rises, 1926 – People struggling to find relationships due to tough times, not trying to write about “the lost generation” but inevitably was.
His phrase was “The earth abides”. IV. War Correspondent A. Spanish/Civil War – 1. For When the Bell Tolls B. WWII V. Noble Prize, 1954 – he received this, but felt this was a mind block afterwards bc he thought all his work had to be up to the standard of winning the prize. A. Existentialism & “Old Man and the Sea” – existentialism will push you toward adventures but you don’t have to push it toward tragedy. Old man and the sea is about a Cuban going out on a tiny sailboat and catches a sailfish bigger than his boat.
On the way back onto the shore he is attacked by sharks who want to eat the dead sailfish, but fails and when he gets to shore the sharks have eaten mostly all the fish, and the Cuban man stumbles back to his shack feeling hes a failure and felt worthless. The townspeople saw the fish bones and thought of the fisherman as a success even though he was asleep when the people were viewing this, not knowing what they had thought. VI. “The Code” – men doing manly things, being a man in a manly way. This is a way men can preserve masculinity in a real way by doing manly things. Charles Lindbergh, 1902 – 1974 I. Bg. biggest hero of the 1920’s for everyone at this time. A. Minnesota + Washington DC – born in Minn. In 1902. Mother name was “Lands” and her mom was a dentist. Lindbergh family was very rich. Didn’t socialize well and was left out, had few friends, and his dog was his best friend. Always referred to his dog as his best friend. Moved to D. C. to spend time w/his dad and was around congress and politics. II. Tech & Airplanes – A. Univ. of Wisconsin, 1920 – attended the univ. and had an apartment w/his mom off campus. He had bad grades so he and his mom took time away and went on a road trip to Cali. B.
Flying 1. Excelsion in Nebraska – Acquires a excelsior motorcycle and when he got back to Minnesota he traded it for a Jenny Airplane, then flew it to Lambert Field. 2. Lambert Field, St. Louis – huge aviation place. 3. Flying Circuses – traveled with the circus and did airplane acrobatics, made money doing this. (Parachute jumping, airplane walking, and other ways to earn money. ) 4. Army, 1924 – enlisted in Army Air core. Army had best airplanes and he joined so he could fly the best and fastest airplanes. Received Ceremonial General and Army didn’t want Lindbergh in army bc he didn’t fit into the system. . Airmail, 1926 – Lindbergh’s plane crashed 2x and he took the mail with him when he bailed out. Crashed due to flying into bad weather. Got the name “lucky lindy” bc of this. III. 1927 A. The Accomplishment – he planned to fly across the Atlantic from N. Y. to Paris. Tried to buy a mono winged airplane, was unable to so he contacted Ryan Aircraft in San Diego to buy one from them. St. Louis bankers gave him money to buy it as long as their name was on the plane. His planes name was “ Spirit of St. Louis”. He made the trip in about 33 hours, only being about 20 miles off of the destination in Paris.
He flew around looking for the field and people heard him and they parked their cars creating a runway with the cars headlights. B. “Well, we made it” – what Lindbergh has said when he landed and got out of the plane. said “we” bc he was talking about his him and his plane that made the trip. C. Why such a hero? – Hero bc he made it, survived, worldwide jubilation, became a celebrity, wrote a book called “we”. Caused Great Depression I. Structuralist II. Monetarist (Rose and Milton Friedman) A. Depression Cycles 1. Runs and stop payments 2. Positive result B. Federal Reserve 1. Benjamin Strong – one of 12 presidents of a fed.
Reserve bank. Dominated fed. Reserve systems. Became defacto chairman of the Fed. Reserve banks. Died in 1928. After he died their was squabbling and fighting to become next president overseer. 2. Bank of the U. S. C. F. D. R. Failure 1. Moratorium (temporarily stopping business) – cause a sensation of banking monetarily by shutting them down for a few months. Hoover proposed this but would not establish it until the next president came to office. F. D. R. declines this and wants to come up with his own idea. 1932-33 no bank moratorium happened and this is when banks failed and 14 out of 48 states only had open banks.
Great Depression Stats and Conditions I. Business A. US Steal, ex. – Operating at 19. 1% capacity. In 1928 made and sold 60 locomotives and in 1933 they only sold 1. B. Stock Market – stocks dropped to 11% total loss of $74 billion. Money and wealth disappeared. C. Banks – (5,000) D. Bankruptcy – 86,000 businesses declared bankruptcy and many others just shrank. E. G. N. P. (Gross Nat’l Product) – 124$ billion in 1928 and 1933 dropped to 41 billion. Economy shrank by over 60%. Started in ’29 and continues to summer of ’33. II. Families A. Wages – 1928 a family of 4 needs $2000 a year to exist.
Making less than this you’re poor. In 1932 average family wage is $16. 21 a week making it less than $1000 a year. %60 of families below poverty line. Almost 2/3 of the U. S. population is poor. B. Evictions – people losing their homes and in 1932 273,000 people are evicted, losing their homes. C. Emigration > immigration – more people were leaving the U. S. than people were entering the U. S. D. Unemployment – 15-17 Million people unemployed and 34 million were affected. (Industrial type of family) For agricultural families they had a family size of 7-8, and 11 million were affected.
With this combined 1/3 of the U. S. population was unemployed. III. Why No Revolution? Hitler comes to power in the 1930’s in Europe. No revolution in the U. S. A. Guilt – American population blamed themselves, known as the protestant work ethic. (God favors the rich and hard working, you will be successful if you work hard. If you fail its your fault bc the U. S. is land of opportunity. Citizens are inclined to blame themselves during the depression, thinking its God’s punishment for the behavior that went on in the 1920’s. ) Altruistic suicide – Neil Dunkein came up with this.
The father/husband thinks that his family will be better without him bc he is a failure and dragging the family down. B. Radical Heritage C. Business Success A. Alfred Butts – created scrabble and became rich B. Howard Johnson – opened up an ice cream shop that became a successful business chain next to movie theatres and became rich C. J. Paul Ghetto – in the oil industry, his industry didn’t go under like most did. He bought up bankrupt oil companies and became a multi billionaire by converting oil factories to gas ones. IV. FARMS – 90% in 1770’s to 30% in the 1930’s and less than 2% today. People are migrating off farms.
Declining farm commodities is driving people away. A. Prices drop – wheat is 25 cents, oats 10 cents, hogs and beef 2 ? cents per lb. , corn 7 cents a bushel. Costs a $1. 10 to raise a sheep and sell wool and you can only make 1$ back. Prices are not enough to be sufficient. No profit to be made. Drought comes upon farmers in the 30’s and makes it worse. B. Dust Bowl – refers to a geographic area out in the Oklahoma & Texas panhandle, parts of Kansas and New Mexico. Oklahoma got the image as being from the dust bowl. Long-term thing that pushed people of their land and went out west looking for jobs. Outsiders called those people “Okies”.
V. The Dole – refers to private charity in place when unemployment hits. A. Local Relief – $5. 50 a week from charity a week, 286$ a year in Philly. NY is $2. 37 a week, 123$ a year & Mississippi is $1. 50 a week, 178$ a year. You have to be completely broke (no relatives to live with, no home, no job and if you accept this your kids cant go to school bc your not paying taxes since you have no property bc people pay taxes to support schools). B. Stigma VI. Middle Class Impact A. Psych Burden – Falls on the women, creating a return to domesticity. Returns to wife and mother stayiat home doing housework. B.
Street Smarts – finding ways to save money (dine and dash, repairing your shoes on your own instead of buying new ones if falling apart, reusing bed sheets, filling up on as much food for as little as possible) VII. Changing US Attitudes A. Business status decreases B. Family Structure 1. “Holding their own” –Women holding their own as the domesticity returns. C. Federal Status/Image- only federal action can cure the situation. Acceptance of federal presence in everyone’s lives (G-men come about, FBI ^) D. Changing U. S. Appearance – pollution declines, water and air is cleaner, traffic is less, petty crimes increase.
Movies increase as well as gas production. Okie migration, black farmers are leaving the farms in the south. Herbert Hoover – 1874-1964 I. Beginning: 19th century traditionalist A. In 1895 he had 40$, invested it and in 1908 had $4million B. Youth: he was orphaned off from Iowa he went to Oregon at age 7. C. Stanford – B. S. 1895 1. Elected class treasurer, ran for office 2x and won both. Graduated with a B. S. in Geology. D. Hard rock miner – mining through granite, igneous rock, rocks that require blasting and you go 1,000s of feet underground. 1. Nevada: 1895-97 – worked here in the silver boom-mining period.
Lost his job when the rush was over, so he didn’t give u, he went to Alaska unemployed. 2. Alaska Gold Rush: 1897 A. Afghan Mine – closed abandoned mine. Hoover investigated and using his geology skills he found that their was more gold to be found. Goes around and raises 500,000$ to onstruct a deep rock mine. He was successful and they dug out $55 million worth of gold and the investors got a 10$ million dollar profit. With this success he became a mining consultant. 3. Consultant – he became a mining consultant; going around helping mine companies dig in mines and be more successful and sufficient.
E. World Travels 1. Boxer Rebellion 1900 –Boxers were rebelling the Chinese emperor about the European influence. Hoover was in Peking China with his wife and saved innocent victims from a burning building. 2. WWI – too old to fight, but is helping out with distributing American soldiers on the line. Serves on Commission of Relief, distributing relief to soldiers throughout the war. Food Admin was set up and it wasn’t doing very well so Hoover was appointed to this administration making it work terming it Hooverizing the administration due to the success with him in charge. F. Sec. f Commerce – Harding was elected Hoover became Sec. of Commerce. II. Hoover and depression A. President, 1928-32, 29-33 – B. Causes of Depression – Stock market crashed in ’29, Hoover believed not to do anything thinking it would weed out the inefficient and the country will just ride it out. He believes the problems are external rooting from WWI debts such as war debts and reparation, thinking the European weakness was dragging us down. During the depression he was encouraging everyone, keeping businesses open, not striking or firing employees, but he was becoming aware this was doing nothing significant. C. Policy 1.
Inaction – did nothing to help the economy until he realized the economy wouldn’t recover itself. 2. Action – By 1929 he enacted a Tax cut on the Ag. Market known as Ag. Marketing Act. This was enactive so the fed came up with $5mil for Ag farmers to purchase excess farm material and store them until the commodity price rose and they could sell it back off. This was ineffective in 1929 as well. Smoot Hawley Tariff was created raising tariff from 50 to 100% meant to be a wall protecting the American economy from the weak European economy. He then enacted a 1 year free of paying off loan payments from the European countries to the U.
S. this did not work either. III. Bonus Army, 1932 : Hoover in 1932 enacted the Recon. Finance Corp. – meant to give large corporations 2. 5$ billion in loans in the states to do corporate work hiring workers, making the money trickle down. Doesn’t work either. Doesn’t work. Home Loan Bank Act in 1932 was created loaning money to banks so people could keep their houses, renegotiating mortgage rates and avoid foreclosure. The breathing space of a few months did not stall the foreclosure rates, just stalled it, bc if people still were unemployed they couldn’t pay the banks. Stipulations given to WWI veterans. A.
WWI Adjusted (compensation certificates, 1924) B. Walter “Hot” Waters – gave fiery speeches at govt. advocating that payments to veterans be paid now not wait unitl the 1940’s. Characterized as leader of the veteran movement. Wanted a march on Washington bc Hoover vetoed this bill allowing vets to be paid early. C. Congress vs. Hoover D. American Legion – veteran organization, they opposed early payment; do not support bonus march on Washington. They support Hoover and his veto of early payments. E. Bonus March, summer 1932 – veterans were mostly homeless, they hopped on trains and hitchhiked and there were in-between 10-20,000 appear in D.
C. They flocked to Potomac flats and set up shanty towns/boxes for housing. Requires a structured living quarters. I. Anacostia Flats – some of these veterans move into rundown buildings and factories. When the police tried to remove them they threw bricks and stuff to ward off the cops. 1. Hoover image vs. Reality – he was considered to be unsympathetic and hard nosed. 2. Gen. D. MacArthur – Helped assist the Washington police to remove veterans from the buildings w/army warfare and they destroyed the buildings and encampments as well. Looked scary and really bad on the live newsfeed that captured it.
Hoover did not order this, MacArthur did this on his own. Hoover criticized MacArthur in private voicing his displeasures. II. Hoover Reviled – Reviled bc his image was him ordering the veterans to me killed and removed when in fact this was not true. Hoover blankets (sleeping on benches covered with newspapers), hoovervilles (living quarters made out of cardboard shacks), and hoover hog (whatever edible food you could find and make or eat) was named while he was president. Last stint as a huge public icon. A. Pop Culture B. Election C. Rehabilitation, 1950 and 60 FDR & New Deals
I. FDR – Most dominant political figure in American history, elected 4 straight times. He felt it was appropriate and just the fact that he could get elected tells how powerful and influential he was. A. Beginning and youth. He was distant cousin of Theodore Roosevelt. Heritage went back to a wealthy English family that was luxurious and didn’t have to work bc the family had millions. Grew up in the rich community, but he was hard working man who went to a private academy and attended Harvard. Worked as Police Commissioner in NY and served as assistant secretary of the navy.
B. Polio, 1921 – attacks fluid in spinal column and kills nerves, paralyzing hips, knees and legs. If moved to you’re diaphragm then you had the aggressive type. Roosevelt had non-aggressive and was paralyzed from the waist down. He caught this when on vacation while on a party boat that housed a dozen or so people. Swimming back to the boat caught his polio after he swam from an island. Without polio he supposedly would not have the same success he would without it. People that voted for him knew he had polio. II. 1932 Election A. Gov. of NY B.
New Deal – provide people with a do over, that would rescue the country from the depression. C. Brain Trust – old progressive idea. Means he relies on expert knowledge. Hiring people in fields that are the smartest, president doesn’t know everything of every field. These people were his Brain Trust’s listed below. They were the ones advising him on what decisions to make. He would make final decision of their arguments on certain topics. A. Ray Moley – “the mole” pro business, wrote some of early speeches for FDR. B. Louie Howe – FDR’s oldest friend. Helped him with rehab and stayed by his side.
Grounding to reality type of person to keep him intact with reality. C. Jim Farley – liaison between White House and Democrats. D. Harry Hopkins – Became the face of the New Deal. Head of WPA. E. Rexford Tugwell – Head of TPA. Economics professor at Columbia Univ. III. 1st 100 Days, 1st New Deal – outpouring of legislation. 14 major pieces of legislation were passed. This means congress passed legislation that were not finalized, they were outlined, congress passed them and president Roosevelt ok’ed them. A. First inaugural – the only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Pep talk to not get people depressed. B. FDR Style
A. Pragmatist – mot tied to any ideology, makes decisions based on certain instances. He calls himself this, not publicly, but he thinks of himself as a political quarterback. Make radical ideas until the economy is back to par, and then he will become conservative. B. Final Arbiter – he had the final say so in the cabinet and if you didn’t agree you got out. C. Genius? Yes and No. Wasn’t always the brightest, he was a second class student, but confident in the ideas and philosophies he did have. 1. Intellect 2. Empathy and charisma – people liked him bc he had this, just something that came naturally. D. Use of Media – 1.
Fireside Chats – people listed to his speeches by the fire, communicating directly to people in their living rooms. Big power that he used to his advantage. 2. 16 Friends – FDR controlled the press, most of these were paper editors. He used these informal friends to write stories, shave stories for the better and not tell some stories in their papers. 3. Govt. Shorts – refers to short films, promoting various govt. programs. “The Plow that Broke the Plains” and “The River”. Appeared in the movie theatres that were in-between movie films. IV. Eleanor’s Role – FDR’s wife. Allowed herself to be used by her husband for political purposes.
If he was unsure about an idea how it would play with the public, he would have his wife propose the issue, looking like she would give them the idea, and the President and cabinet members would wait for the press to respond and see how they took the news to know if it would be a good idea. Helped insulate her husband from political fallout when necessary. V. 1st 100 days & 1st New Deal A. Cabinet 1. Henry Wallace 2. Harold Ickes 3. Frances Perkins –1st female cabinet member, lawyer by training. 4. Harry Hopkins B. Legislation 1. Banking Crisis – over 5,000 banks closed and people that had money in them lost it all.
A. Bank holiday – declared bank holiday over fireside chats closing all banks for 1-2 weeks. Designed to make the public be less panicky. B. Banking Act – Gives President authority to close the banks. Takes U. S. off gold standard. Paper money no longer tied to amount of gold in federal repository. C. Glass-Steagle Act – June of 1933, reform legislation. Separates commercial and investment banking. Establishes FDIC, still in place today. 1. FDIC – Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. $5,000 limit at the time. 2. National Industrial Recovery Act – 1st solution to recover the industrial industry.
Created NRA (National Recovery Administration). A. NRA & Blue Eagle – symbols of politics B. Public works: PWA – NRA oversaw this. $3 Billion went to support PWA projects, paid %40-60, which was labor costs. C. Codes of Fair Competition 1. Title 1, Section 7A 3. Agricultural Adjustment Act A. Goals B. Actions – encouraged farmers to destroy livestock and crops. 1. Short Term – 2. Long term – Estab. program of subsidy to farmers to limit them on their crop growth C. Criticism – burning of crops and killing livestock b/c people are on the streets starving at the time. If you’re going to subsidize farmers farm everyone else.
D. Success – stops downward spiral of overproduction. 4. Civilian Conservation Corps A. Goals – Create jobs for youth men – Employs some 300,000 men, segregated B. Program – employ males in the age range of 18-25 that are married and jobless. 30$ monthly. Doing natural resource work (fighting fires, building buildings, fixing up communities, conservation type work). C. Criticism- CCC men are referred to as Military Brown Shirts. This is compared to things going on in Germany. People assert this to Roosevelt’s private army. D. Success – did a 180-degree swing and became very successful based on the pics.
Becomes one of the most popular ideas out of the New Deal. 5. Tennessee Valley Authority A. Goals B. Accomplished C. Criticism D. Success New Deals I. Evaluations: A. Relief: Roosevelt credited w/preserving American democratic institutions. B. Recover: Considered to be a failure. WWII solved the depression not the reforms. C. Reform: put into place regulations, preserving prosperity. Insufficient reforms or to many reforms had be pulled back and repealed? Women and Great Depression I. Family status: A. Marriage: rates decline. Put on hold b/c of uncertainty of the future. B.
Divorce: rates decline. Increased in the 1920’s, but collapsed in the 30’s due to having to separate and having a lack of opportunities outside of marriage. C. Births: declining rates. II. Ag Women: A. Rates are down: Ag families having 5-6 kids per family are becoming less. B. Rural Electrification – electricity to the farms were beneficial and helped even during the depression. 1935 1-10 Farms have electricity. 1941 4-10 farms have electricity. III. Working women: A. 1930 Census: 11 million women working constitute 24% of female population and are 22% of all workers at the time. B. 940 Census: 13 million women working constitute 25% of the female population and are 25% of all the workers at the time. IV. Gender Roles and Feminism A. Domesticity is up – the word feminism changes in its connotation. B. Role Models: 1. Feminist’s – Eleanor has an all female staff, gaining training in political world. 2. Traditional – serving her husband as first lady. Women in sports represented the new woman in the 1920’s. In the 30’s you had to be beautiful and have female qualities if you wanted to be an athlete. All women were expected to be attractive. Depression Hollywood I.
Stats – 60-80 movies a week and 500 a year. 1930’s attendance was 10 million. Quarter for adult and 10 cents for a kid. In between movies you saw cartoon, govt. short or other reels. II. Studios: MGM, 20th Century Fox, Paramount, Warner Bros. and RKO are the only studios that survived. Continue in vertical integration and wanted to control everything, working out deals to make profits and show movies in each other’s studios. A. Formula Evolution III. Cynicism in 1934: Hollywood is pushing censorships. IV. Censorship Est. : A. Production Code, 1930 – sometimes called the 10 commandments for movies of what they can and cant do.
Violence is euphemistic, human relationships are moderated. B. Movies 1931-33: by this time the producers are violating their own codes. Brief depictions of female nudity. Scandalous and boycotting are becoming threatening. Uproar is so great that Hollywood takes action, thinking htat if audience wont come then they finally stop with this and hire joseph Breen to view and censor movies from 1934 on. C. Joseph Breen: looks at scripts and tears out the parts that can’t be portrayed. (You can say pregnant in movies, so you say a woman is expecting.
You can’t show a woman and man in bed unless one of them has a foot on the floor even if married. Hetero-social circumstances disappear due to the thought of scaring the audience away and losing money. ) Dance/musicals are the only way a man and woman can be embracing and moving in the 1960’s. V. Up Beat A. Hollywood 1934 – IV. Women’s Roles A. Light and Dark – means virtuous woman (light woman) and she always gets the guy at the end. The dark woman (licentious woman) who goes after the guy and gets him for a moment eventually comes to a bad head and he goes to get the light woman.