Week 3 Discussion 2 Response

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. One of the references must come from Broderick and Blewitt (2015). I need this completed by 12/17/17 at 6pm. Please respond to these posts from my classmates. I will post their work and respond according to the instructions
Respond to at least two of your colleagues using one or more of the following approaches:
· Select a colleague who was assigned a different client than you. Suggest and explain an additional issue, family dynamic, and/or development-related issue that might impact the young child’s development. Support your response with references to the current literature and your own observations.
· Select a colleague who was assigned the same client as you. Validate his or her perspective or provide an alternative perspective of the effectiveness of their interventions. Support your response with references to the current literature and your own observations.
Classmate post:
1. (S. Mor)
· My client Justin Reeves is four years old and is the son of Lucas and Anne Reeves. Justin has an older brother named John and a baby sister named Emme. In the school Justin attends there was a recommendation made by his Kindergarten teacher, it would be in Justin’s best interest to see a counselor. Lucas who is the only caretaker in the house is overwhelmed with the responsibilities of three children, and an absentee wife. The disruption is starting to show in Justin’s behavior at school.
· Significant Developmental Issue
·      The presenting issue that has concerned Justin’s Kindergarten teacher is the behavior she has noticed from Justin to his peers. Justin is displaying issues in socializing, and when he does socialize it is in an aggressive manner or dominating force. In the correction method that the teacher uses which may include time out, Justin is unable to express feelings of guilt or remorse. The teacher also noticed that Justin shows clear signs of anger and is not accepting responsibility for his actions when she addresses them to him. Justin’s teacher did acknowledge all of his behavior is not bad, but since the departure of his mother there has been an increase in the unwelcoming behavior.
·      Justin is four years old and with the departure of his mother, it is quite a big upset in his life. The mother is not deceased and helping a four year old understands what is going on with his mother is difficult. Anne is Justin’s mother and she is battling with alcohol dependency, and she left her family after the birth of Justin’s sister Emme. Justin most likely has so many emotions going on in his head; it is hard processing exactly what happened to his life. I am sure he loves his mother and he may feel resentment towards his sister if he correlates that is the reason why his mom left. The behavior in school is a result of not being able to process the difficulties he is in at home, and not being able to clearly understand exactly what is happening. Justin’s mom left after the birth of his sister which means she has been his caregiver up to the birth. Attachment theory for a child under one years of age creates a bond of attachment normally with their primary caregiver (Gullone, Ollendick & King, 2006). An important factor to consider in Justin’s life during his first year is the quality of care he experienced. It is not known if Justin’s mother was drinking at this time, but it is important to understand what type of care she provided for him. The care should have included parental availability, did she respond to him when he was hungry or wet, and did they form an emotional bond. The behavior he is displaying may tell us he is frustrated because she is absent, and during this important time she was accountable and available. “Attachment theorists claim that early family experiences that are dysfunctional, through insensitive or non-responsive parenting lead to the development of insecure attachment (Gullone, Ollendick & King, 2006). This brings me to another theory, where Justin received horrible care from his mother during his first year and he is showing signs of a child that has no direction and is lost mentally and emotionally.
· Interventions to Enhance Development
·      Lucas has taken the necessary steps in order to get help for his family. Parents have to set limitations for their children to follow which is an intricate part of learning how to socialize correctly (Lifespan, 2015). Justin is showing his teacher and classmates he does not know how to socialize properly by being aggressive and unable to learn when he is corrected. Lucas could use methods of control, but this may or may not help the teacher. The first method is power assertion which incorporates physical punishment which I would not suggest this because Justin is hurting from the actions of the adults in his life (Lifespan, 2015). The second method of control is love withdrawal where a parent does not engage with a child any longer and this creates high levels of anxiety in the child (Lifespan, 2015). Unfortunately the mother leaving her family has caused Justin to feel this method, and I would not suggest this because it seems to be cruel to withdrawal from a child. The third method is induction which allows parents to explain the reasons why we do not behave badly, and gives clear examples for Justin to understand (Lifespan, 2015).  The interventions for Lucas must involve support from his father, teacher, and I really would like to have a conversation with his mother. The main thing I would begin to focus on is the aggression he is displaying because it has the potential to get worse if nothing is done about it now. Also supporting Lucas and helping him formulate a plan in which he is able to talk to Justin, in order to explain why things have changed. The conversation has to be done gently and worded for a four year old to understand. Justin may feel his mother’s absence is his fault of even his sister’s fault, and we definitely do not want him becoming aggressive with the baby.
· Conclusion
· Justin with the correct direction and support will be able to understand and correct his behavior with the right course of action that will benefit him and his family. The actions he is displaying are from a child that does not understand the disruption that has occurred in his life. The method of control I would recommend using with Justin is induction because he has to understand why he feels they way he feels, and it is not his fault why things have changed. The outcome will be beneficial to Justin and his entire family.
· References:
· Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
· Gullone, E., Ollendick, T. H., & King, N. J. (2006). The role of attachment representation in the relationship between depressive symptomatology and social withdrawal in middle childhood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(3), 263–277.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
· Laureate Education (Producer). (2013n). Young childhood [Video file]. Retrieved from CDN Files Database. (COUN 6215/COUN 8215/HUMN 8215) 
2. (B. Smi)
· For this week’s discussion, my client is 7-year-old Hunter who is raised by his single mother, Carol. Hunter also has a younger sister, Olivia, who was born with a low birth weight and a few other issues. Gary, the children’s father, is no longer involved with the family in any degree. To provide a better life for herself and her children, Carol has started taking online classes and acquired a second job. She receives some support from a close family friend that cares for the children while she works. 
·      Carol has brought Hunter in today as she believes the aforementioned neighbor may have abused him. This neighbor has had access to both children for years so it is unclear when or how long  the abuse occurred. Carol expresses guilt about not having being as involved as she should have. Hunter presents as emotionally volatile and anxious, becoming easily irritated and aggressive.  He also utilizes language that is inappropriate for his age. 
· Development-related Issue
·       DeYoung (2011) reported that infants, toddlers, and preschoolers are at a high risk of experiencing traumatic events which could then lead to the development of Posttraumatic stress disorder. Research indicates that this specified group often develops PTSD symptoms: re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal. In Hunter’s case, I believe he may be experiencing avoidance as. “…avoidance can be observed as efforts to avoid exposure to conversations, people, objects, situations, or places that serve as reminders of the trauma” (DeYoung, 2011, pg. 233).
·      An example of emotional numbing could be as simple as the child distancing himself from his family or becoming less affectionate with his mother. Hunter’s expressions of anger, frustration, or agitation could be his attempts at avoiding certain stimuli that remind him of the abuse. This is an issue as young children that have experienced trauma become more likely to develop additional emotional or behavioral issues (DeYoung, 2011, pg. 233).  Increased impaired emotional or behavioral functioning could result in the progression of depression, anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
· Interventions
· In our past work with the family we knew that Carol felt Hunter was not getting the best educational experiences as she could not afford them. In addition to this, Carol seemed to cope with her frustrations by shopping for her family. Broderick (2016) declared that each emotion has a function and serves a purpose. Examples of this include an infant crying to be fed or changed, being disgusted by something old and moldy in your fridge, and becoming anxious when approached by someone suspicious.  The text also highlighted that a child’s initial experiences with their primary caregiver are what set the tone for future relationships and attachments. 
·      An intervention I would utilize with Hunter would be to have Carol and Hunter schedule designated times to bond. As weird as it sounds, I think it could be extremely beneficial to Hunter. Carol is working two jobs and attending school online, which would leave to no time for interaction once everyone does get home. Hunter could feel hurt, abandoned, or betrayed by his mother. Carol’s feelings of guilt could also be intensify these feelings. In the past, Carol was a withdrawn, possibly depressed, parent who spent her downtime shopping. The Broderick text implied that babies need assistance in regulating their emotions and understanding interactions that help them feel loved and safe. However, this is not something a depressed parent can provide.
·        Another intervention that could be implemented with this family is to promote safety. Hunter’s expressions of anger or agitation could very well be his security blanket. I think it would be important to first assure him that the alleged individual would no longer providing him with care. The next steps could include to equip Hunter with coping skills and ways to manage his feelings of anxiety or fear. Broderick (2016) listed helping resources such as yoga, mindfulness, relaxation training, and anti-anxiety medication. I believe this intervention could be helpful to Hunter as it involves education. Teaching someone to protect themselves is completely different than protecting them. What I mean by this is that situations may occur that cause them great anxiety while their support person is not around. It is imperative that Hunter is able to relax and utilize his acquired skills to navigate triggers.
· Conclusion
·      The Crane family has continued to mature and develop as Carol has taken on more responsibility for the betterment of her family. However, more stressors have arised as her only adult support has now allegedly abused her oldest child, Hunter. Carol’s resources were already limited and have just shrunk further. In addition to this, she is seeking assistance for Hunter’s current behavioral issues. The family can begin to heal by first being educated on posttraumatic stress disorder, its symptoms, and forms of treatment.
· References
· Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
· De Young, A. C., Kenardy, J. A., & Cobham, V. E. (2011). Trauma in early childhood: A neglected population. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 14(3), 231–250.
· Laureate Education (Producer). (2013n). Young childhood [Video file]. Retrieved from CDN Files Database. (COUN 6215/COUN 8215/HUMN 8215) 
3. (L. Waf)
· Introduced to the Anderson family four years ago, our counseling sessions began. The Andersons are African American, Southern Baptist and very involved in the church.  At the time of our initial acquaintance, Audrey and Ernie Anderson had just lost their daughter and son-in-law who died suddenly because of an automobile accident. Immediately following their deaths Audrey and Ernie obtained sole custody of their three grandchildren, one being Jamal who was six-years-old at the time, now ten.  Jamal had been diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome.  He began receiving program support services for autism in which he has excelled through the years. As a result, Jamal has been considered, “high functioning” and placed into regular instruction.
· Audrey has not been to counsel for four years and reports up until now things have been going well. Her presenting concern is for Jamal; he is currently struggling academically and with social cues. Often becoming easily frustrated, he has been having a difficult time at home and school typically resulting in behavioral outbursts. Jamal’s behaviors are causing great concern in the home and at school. (Laureate Education, 2013).
· Significant Developmental Issues
· In the case of Jamal, I would like to address two developmental issues that come into play. First, Jamal having a diagnosis of Asperger’s.  Asperger’s is a developmental disability that impairs the ability to socialize and communicate effectively. Asperger’s is on the higher-functioning end of the autism spectrum. Behavioral symptoms such as disruptive behavior, hyperactivity, self-injurious (SIB), and stimming can be present in autism. Preoccupation with highly personal interests, uncoordinated movement, and physical awkwardness, Children with ASD also lack the basis for many standard progressions in development, especially formulating peer relationships”. (Broderick & Blewittt, 2015). According to Broderick & Blewitt, “It is essential to recognize that emotional regulation underlies the ability to control behaviors.” The emotional problems encountered by individuals with ASD come from a lack of adequate emotion regulation strategies.
· Second, Jamal suffered the tragic, untimely death of both his parents concurrently. Following their death, Jamal had to readapt his lifestyle moving in with his grandparents. The possibility of Jamal not understanding what caused his parent’s abrupt demise could have created feelings of abandonment and separation anxiety. Early childhood trauma may put children at risk for poor academic performance and adjustment problems (Bosquet Enlow et al., 2012). Another developmental challenge having been withdrawn from specialized programming for individuals with ASD.
· Intervention to Enhance Development
· I would look at a few different interventions to enhance Jamal’s development. It is essential to determine the triggers for his behavioral outburst. Therefore, I would begin by having the parents have a complete medical assessment on Jamal ruling out all neurological and possible medical ailments that may lead to behavioral outbursts as well as assess the need for psychotropic medication. Next, I would focus on social skills, boundary setting, and behavior modifications and implement behavioral supports. I would also like to discuss psychosocial education for the grandparents.
· Conclusion
· Ruling out all physical health issues, implementing behavior supports, and providing psychosocial education to the caregivers should enhance the above mentioned developmental issues. By providing the caregivers with proper education, they will gain better insight into of Jamal’s developmental process and discover ways to deal with his behaviors appropriately.  It is crucial that they know, although he is of higher functioning, he will never progress on a “normal” developmental scale.  
· References
· Bosquet Enlow, M., Egeland, B., Blood, E. A., Wright, R. O., & Wright, R. J. (2012). Interpersonal trauma exposure and cognitive development in children to age 8 years: A longitudinal study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66(11), 1005. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1136/jech-2011-200727
· Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
· Laureate Education (2013). Young childhood [Video file]. Retrieved from CDN Files Database.
· Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
o Chapter 4, “Emotional Development in the Early Years” (pp. 124-167)
o Chapter 5, “The Emerging Self and Socialization in the Early Years” (pp. 168-201)
Cote, L. R., & Bornstein, M. H. (2009). Child and mother play in three U. S. cultural groups: Comparisons and associations. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(3), 355–363.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
De Young, A. C., Kenardy, J. A., & Cobham, V. E. (2011). Trauma in early childhood: A neglected population. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 14(3), 231–250.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Gould, K. (2011). Parenting theAsperger’s child: Extraordinary demands and pitfalls. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 31(3), 320–333.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Gullone, E., Ollendick, T. H., & King, N. J. (2006). The role of attachment representation in the relationship between depressive symptomatology and social withdrawal in middle childhood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(3), 263–277.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Mercer, S. H., & DeRosier, M. E. (2010). Selection and socialization of internalizing problems in middle childhood. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29(9), 1031–1056.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
· Laureate Education (Producer). (2013n). Young childhood [Video file]. Retrieved from CDN Files Database. (COUN 6215/COUN 8215/HUMN 8215)
This media presentation continues your exploration of the client family assigned to you by your Instructor. This week, you will focus on the young child, aged 4–10, in your Discussion post.
Note: Please click on the following link for the transcript: Transcript (PDF).

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