Architectural Intervention in the Historic City of Panipat

Key words: Panipat, War commemoration, Tourism, Heritage, Development

Panipat has ever been a landmark metropolis with its history dating back from the Mahabharata epoch. The metropolis has seen an tremendous alteration from the yesteryear to the present, from a decisive battleground which changed the history of Hindustan to a busy industrial Centre.
The purpose of this paper is to measure the function architecture plays in the individuality devising of a metropolis keeping the relationship between the yesteryear and the present. This paper tries to find the possibilities of developing ‘phoenix tourism’ in the signifier of a war commemoration in Panipat to reconstruct the bing commemorations and the add-on a new signifier of touristry apart from the Highway and the Pilgrim touristry. Phoenix touristry as a term coined by Lynch ( 2007 ) is a new sort of touristry related to decease but stressing more on lifting from the ashes. Similar is a vision of constructing a new individuality for Panipat by conveying back the fring history of the topographic point.
To understand this it is really of import to understand the bing built signifiers in the metropolis, to unify the bing landforms into one alone individuality.
Panipat, a metropolis known as the ‘CITY OF HANDLOOM’ in present twenty-four hours enjoys the pride of witnessing the three celebrated decisive conflicts of Panipat in the old ages 1526, 1556 and 1761 which changed the whole history of India. The metropolis was one time called the ‘gateway to India’ for its geographical location and closeness to Delhi, ( the so capital of India ) has now turned into a major industrial town in Haryana. It is located on the National Highway No. 1 ( Grand Trunk Road ) , one of the oldest main roads of India doing the metropolis connected to Delhi and Amritsar ( Town and state Planning Dept. , 2006 ) . The expansive bole route extends from the Bengal to Kabul doing it a major path linking the state with the Afghans doing the metropolis a gateway to India. This path has bought Babur to Hindustan, Ahmed Shah Abidali and many more Afghan encroachers and swayers. Panipat is located 90 kilometers from New Delhi.
Harmonizing to the National capital part program, Panipat is seen as a regional Centre in Haryana sub- part of National Capital Region which brings the demand to escalate development in the metropolis ( Town and state Planning Dept. , 2006 ) .

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Sr. no.
Land usage
Area within municipal bounds ( in hour angle. )
Area within extended municipal bounds ( in hour angle. )
Area within controlled country ( in hour angle. )
Entire country ( in hour angle. )
% age of entire country




Conveyance and communicating


Public public-service corporations


Public and semi public

Open infinites


Particular zone



Beginning: Town and state planning section, Haryana Govt.
Figure 1. Proposed land uses for 2021
As seen in figure 1, a major portion of the metropolis land is under the industrial sector while presently the metropolis holds about negligible land in the Open, Public and semi- public infinites. the industrial sector presently is scattered among the commercial and the residential sectors deteriorating the populating status of the people.
The metropolis has seen growing in population chiefly during the clip of divider and besides between 1991- 2001. In the period of 1991- 2001, the metropolis has seen a growing of 89.35 % i.e. from 1,90,000 to 3,62,047, this happened due to the slack in the market and closing of certain Spinning Millss ( Town and Country Planning Dept. , 2006 ) . With this the metropolis hold the bulk of the population i.e. 41 % working in the industrial sector.
Panipat is an industrial town of International degrees due to its export of handlooms ( Town and Country Planning Dept. , 2006 ) . A metropolis with international delegates frequently tends to ask for people to the metropolis. This makes it of import to construct an individuality for the metropolis which can keep the international criterions.
Panipat being a battleground in the yesteryear has witnessed constructions build by the imperiums who took portion in the war. The first conflict of Panipat between Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi bought the Mughals to India every bit good their manner of architecture. A symbol of their manner here being the Kabuli Mosque construct by Babur to tag his triumph. Panipat has seen batch of deceases during these conflicts. Empires had lost many of its heroism soldiers as good some outstanding leaders. The defeated ground forces, to mark the decease of their leaders and soldiers built graves or commemorations in their recollection. Ibrahim Lodhi, the last Sultan of the Lodhi dynasty was killed in the battleground which can be witnessed with his grave physique by this followings. During the 2nd conflict of Panipat, when the commanding officer in head was killed by the head of Akbar, his followings construct his grave at the topographic point where he took his last breath. The 3rd conflict of Panipat was the autumn of a major imperium of India, the Marathas, which made it easy for the British to capture India. This conflict lasted for three months and over 70,000 Mahrattas were killed. The commanding officer in head of the ground forces, Sadashiv Bhau was killed while contending the conflict. It is said that the topographic point where Bhau died, a tree came up with black Mangifera indicas, giving the memorial the name of ‘kala amb’ . The topographic point of the tree now holds an obelisk to tag the 3rd conflict of Panipat ( asi ) . Haryana in the present twenty-four hours besides is a province dedicated to the Indian Army Force, the province despite holding merely 2 % of the Indian population contributes to 10 % of the officers in the ground forces ( Times of India ) .
These sites give the metropolis its alone individuality of diverseness in the architectural manners every bit good as the builders of these sites. These sites have besides helped maintain the history of the metropolis integral. But, now in the current scenario none of these sites are maintained and their being is acquiring neglected. To maintain the history of the metropolis alive the authorities along with the archeological section has built a conflict museum in the metropolis which once more turned out to be a letdown in the touristry sector with no care and carelessness by the people. This leads us to a inquiry on how to develop the metropolis to do it utile every bit good as bring back its individuality?
Restoring THE History
The historic sites showcases the heritage values such as societal. Historical and architectural. They non merely go an individuality of the topographic point but besides the people associated with the topographic point. When a heritage site becomes the portion of a metropolis, it becomes vn more indispensable to continue the site as it is someplace responsible for the growing of the metropolis. For illustration, the ruddy garrison in New Delhi, was built by Shah Jahan as his capital, the topographic point where the major determinations sing the state were made. The site is presently a major landmark and acts as a major tourer finish and during particular events like Independence Day and Dusserah, the gardens of the castle are really much used. As Daniel Libeskind told of a “need to defy the erasure of history, the demand to react to history, the demand to open the hereafter: that is, to define the unseeable on the footing of the visible” ( Libeskind, 1999:127 ) .
In the present century, these heritage sites are given major importance as they are possible of advancing heritage touristry which in bend attracts more developers. But non all built signifiers of the yesteryear are restored depending on its importance and the strength of the built signifiers.
In a conference held by the UNESCO World Heritage Centres at Vienna in 2005 shows the debated on the function of modern-day architecture in today’s historic urban landscape where the ‘historic urban landscape’ was defined to travel beyond the impressions of historic Centres, ensembles and milieus but besides to include the bordered territorial and landscape context. It should be composed of character- specifying elements: land usage and forms, spacial administration, ocular relationships and all elements of the proficient substructure. During the conference, three major attacks were made in the direction of the Historic metropoliss i.e. by giving importance to the landscape, touristry development and presenting modern-day architecture to heighten the historic importance of the site ( Van Oers ) .
Panipat seems to be a disconnected landscape, where all historical and ideological interruptions are seeable in discontinuity. To unify the disconnected landscape to a alone individuality, the signifier and design is ever debated. There is ever a battle over facade architecture, historic justness, and trial brings a argument about the map of public, societal and cultural infinites in a post- industrialist metropolis ( Heidenreich. L ) . The argument over the merger of modern and traditional has been predominating in many iconic built signifiers. A similar illustration can be seen in the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in Japan which was a memorial with the idea to take the visitants counter- chronologically from the hereafter to the yesteryear ( Cho. H ) . The landscape was built for the planetary peace which bought the argument that if modernism is showcased, it would stand for an flight for the troubled universe while the turning involvement in traditional elements echoed a recovering self- assurance and the reclamation of chauvinistic sentiments. To get the better of this argument, architect Kenzo Tange adopted a modernist manner engagement with the influence from the traditional art and civilization which helped him interrupt with the nation’s imperial yesteryear and besides address the international architecture community ( Cho. H ) . But for constructing a Contemporary built signifier in a historic site demands to keep the design quality and character of the infinite. This can be done with the aid of perspective planning tools like tallness limitations, envelop restrictions, stuff limitations etc. ( Macdonald, 2011 ) . Charles Jencks negotiations about iconic edifices as the cultural look of dynamic metropoliss which gives an individuality to a metropolis like the Sydney opera house does to Sydney ( Jenks, 2005 ) . But the presence of an iconic edifice is ever debated in a historic built environment where an iconic edifice can take away the individuality of the historic site every bit good on the other manus can be a necessary add-on to a more traditional reinforced environment. Sometimes it is of import to hold the combination of historic beds and parts that contribute to the significance ( Macdonald, 2011 ) of the metropolis as a whole.
Panipat, as seen has historic sites related to wars. These sites are scattered all over the metropolis cut downing the strong image of the topographic point. As seen earlier, a conflict museum was built to demo the history of the topographic point but it turned out to be a failure. The ground of the failure is simple, people couldn’t relate themselves to the topographic point and give them the sense of belonging. This brings a demand of a topographic point which can be related to people and more used by people. The part of Haryana skidders can be seen at the Rezang La base on balls in Jammu and Kashmir where out of the 114 soldiers commemorated, 109 were from Haryana ( Hindustan Time, 2012 ) . With every soldier’s decease, a whole household is affected. A female parent loses her immature boy, a adult females becomes a widow, and many childs lose their male parent. Government gives compensation to the households for their loss they bear for the national security, but is this sufficiency for the household to get the better of their loss?
War commemoration is a topographic point to toast the soldiers who sacrificed their lives for the state and besides to retrieve their heroism and triumphs. A topographic point to experience proud of the young person. A war commemoration non merely would move like an iconic building/ landscape but would besides complement to the history of the topographic point.
At regular times each twelvemonth, activities such as memorial walks, artistic shows, community events, re-enactments and both little and big formal commemorative ceremonials are conducted to retrieve the war across the universe. In add-on to the war commemorations, many of the battlegrounds offer picturesque scenery and leisure activities such as basking nutrient ( Winter, 2012 ) . This sort of tourism/ trial is been given many names likebequest touristry, genealogical touristry, dark touristry( attention should be taken in attaching the term ‘dark tourism’ to all signifiers of battlefield touristry ) ,thanatourismetc. These sort of touristry attempts to link us with the past. War commemorations, the general term for infinites to retrieve the war are built holding assorted ideas in head. The grounds can be personal, political, peace-making, provoking, tourer based, etc. the historian find an event to retrieve, a politician happen it as a testimonial to the solider, an army officer might happen it arousing to work even harder, or possibly he might even believe of the loss he/ she had to take for a triumph, hence, he must be looking for peace at that place.
As Scheff ( 2007 ) observed in the Arlington War Memorial, California, when a individual enduring from the similar loss as their meet, they get an chance to show their emotion to a similar individual assisting them ‘move on’ with their lives and removes the agonies from them. ‘The sing to commemorations and the creative activity of new rites might be a measure off from war towards peace’ ( Scheff ) . In the present twenty-four hours where people live in atomic households, and migrate from one topographic point to another, brings the inability to mourn doing it more hard to people to come out of their heartaches.
Haryana being a province with many war widows faces the emotional agony to them and their households. Many of these even immature to get down a life all over once more, but largely they are surrounded by the lesions of the yesteryear which disables them to travel frontward in life. A few commemorations are built in the state to mark the soldiers near the war sites, but these battlegrounds are by and large far off from the abodes of the households affected disenabling them to see the site to their desires. A memorial in common for the lost soldiers in the several provinces would assist convey a common platform for the people of mourn and retrieve their beloved departed.

Cho, H. ( 2012 ) Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park and the Making of Nipponese Postwar Architecture: ( 66:1 )Journal of Architectural Educationpp. 72-83
Archaeological section of India, Chandigarh Circle
Haryana Government, Town and Country Planning Department ( 2006 ) No. CCP ( NCR ) /FDP/PN/PCA/2006/3936.
Haryana touristry Development Authority [ online ]
Lynch, P & A ; Causeric, S. ( 2007 ) The Significance of Dark Tourism in the Procedure of Tourism Development after a Long Term Political Conflict: An Issue of Northern Ireland.ASA Conference 2007: Thinking Through Tourism, London Metropolitan University, London.
Macdonald, S ( 2011 ) Contemporary Architecture in Historic Urban Environment: ( 26,2 )the GCI Newsletter. [ Online ] URL: hypertext transfer protocol: //
Sura, A. ( 2014 ) Haryana adds more musculus to Indian Army, leaves Punjab buttocks.The Times of India[ Online ] 14ThursdayJune. Available from: [ accessed on: 18ThursdayAugust, 2014 ]
Schoff, J. , ( 2007 ) Response to a War Memorial: ( 1,1 )Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology.pp. 58-71
Van Oers R.. Towards new international guidelines for the preservation of historic urban landscapes ( HUL ) s. City & A ; Time 3 ( 3 ) : 3. [ Online ] URL: hypertext transfer protocol: //
Winter, C. , ( 2012 ) memorialization of the Great War on the Somme: researching personal connexions: ( 10,3 )Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. pp. 248-263.

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