IMPACTS OF TOURISM IN HOST COMMUNITIES Tourism is one of the most important worldwide activities; it is also of great importance to the socio-economic and cultural development of a country. Tourism is a vital tool for conservation of natural systems, contributes to sustainable development of local communities and creating communities about sharing experiences. But if this activity is disorganized, uncontrolled and poorly planned can cause damage to both, environmental and cultural.
People started feeling the necessity to travel when they realise the world was full of new and different things to do, and at the same time those things offer them new lifestyle. However they were not only with the intention to visit and learned, they wanted to establish and teach their own traditions to these new places and societies. Nevertheless, not all people change the community, the majority of time community changes the idea of what would be an appropriate lifestyle of those new members. For this reason we can say that tourism has been creating positive and negative impacts on host communities.
On the other hand, when people decide to travel the cultural factor plays an important role at the moment decision is about to make. Tourists usually choose a destination completely different to their current environment. That is why this essay will discuss the good and bad consequences tourism cause on host communities. In addition, it will argue about the importance of the cultural factor within the tourism. Negative impacts on host communities It is hard to think that tourism an activity that can make feel happy can carry negative impacts.
According to Bruce (2001), one of the biggest problems of tourism is that tourists and visitors invade places that belong just to the community, such sacred temples or lands, destroying or making bad use of their properties. This is due to travel agents vending trips to the authenticity of host communities, assaulting their private places, ceremonies and rituals. And, because of that tourist may misunderstand the main reason of why those rituals or ceremonies are for, along with bad comments about the destination causing decreasing of the tourism.
Tourism also brings a number of consequences such: prostitution, gambling, begging and crime. The existence of these activities except of crime is due the tourist. People create these new services to satisfy the customers in this case the tourists. Prostitution in third world countries is very common. According to Duncan, E, and Navarro, H (2001) in Colombia, Cartagena children prostitution is common due to the economic conditions of the population. The majority of the children don’t have enough money to satisfy their basic necessities such food, and clean water.
For that reason they sell their bodies for less than 50 dollars to tourists. One the other hand, another negative impact of tourism in undeveloped countries is the use of money earn by tourism activities. Indigenous from third world countries do not receive any profit made by them, contrary they live in poor conditions. This kind of host communities, despite what is sold to tourists is their lifestyle they suffer from health problems, poor access to education, expropriation of their land, extreme poverty, violation of their right and discrimination. On the other hand crimes increase in countries which the lifestyle is too high, due to the large number of tourist in the area. Furthermore, French, C, and Craig-Smith, S (2000), even though tourisms bring employment, it also brings rivalry between citizens in the community. The type of work that tourism creates is casual or part-time jobs, that means that natives won’t have the opportunity to work all the year. Besides foreign people travel to those communities in peak season and take the job of the citizens.
Positive impacts on host communities On the other hand tourism can bring positive impacts to host communities. Gursay and Rutherford (2011) suggest that: Its basic tent is that locals are likely to participate in an exchange if they believe that they are likely to gain benefits without incurring unacceptable cost if locals perceive that the benefits are greater that the cost, they are inclined to be involve in the exchange and, thus endorse future development in their community. ” (Gursay & Rutherford 2011, p. 95) To travel tourists must have a purpose, most of the time people go overseas to know new cultures, different sceneries. For that reason is important that the destination place have good infrastructure, flora and fauna sanctuaries and great amenities for the tourists. Besides, the local people can make use for personal purpose. In addition, tourism helps the preservation of traditional customs such: dances, food, rites, and festivals. It is important to protect old customs to attract tourist to go.
Christopher (1998) state: “The impacts can be positive, such as the case where tourism preserves or even resurrects the craft skills of the population” (Christopher 1998, p. 169). Conclusion In conclusion tourism can bring positive and negative impacts; the negative impacts can be more than the positive. However, it is an industry that won’t finish despite all the consequences its make. Tourism helps the economy and develops of a country. Reference 1. Bruce, D 2001, Environmental, Ecotourism.
Socio-cultural impact, John Wiley & Sons Australia, Milton, pp. 120-124. 2. Christopher, P 1998, Tourism: principle and practice. The socio-cultural impact of tourism, 2nd edn, vol. 8, Longman, England, pp. 168-184. 3. French, C, Craig-Smith, S, and Collier, A 2000, Principles of tourism. The impact of tourism, 2nd edn, Person Education, Australia, pp. 305-330. 4. Gursay, D & Rutherford, D 2011, “Developing a community support model for tourism”, annals of tourism research, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 64-988, SciVerse ScienceDirect Journals, EBSCohost, Viewed 27 April 2012. 5. Navarro, H, Duncan, E 2001, “Prostitucion de menores en Cartagena: Estimacion de costos sociales y economicos”, Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano seccional del Caribe Departamento de investigaciones, pp. 8-11, google schoolar, viewed 14 March 2012. 6. Wearing, S & Neil, J 2009, Ecotourism Impacts, Potentials and Possibilities. Ecotourism and Protected areas: Visitor Management for Sustaninability,2nd edn, Burlington: Elsevier
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