Assignment: 1. ) Read the following document, “Another Race of White Men Come Amongst Us”: Native American Views as British Replace the French in the Lower Mississippi Valley, 1765 2. ) Answer the following questions based on a reading of the above document and material from your textbook. ——————————————– 1. ) TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Is this a primary or a secondary source? -Primary 2. ) DATE(S) OF DOCUMENT: When was this document created? -It was created shortly after the British replaced the French in the Lower Mississippi Valley in 1765 3. ) AUTHOR (OR CREATOR) OF THE DOCUMENT: Who created this document? Alibamon Mingo, elderly leader of the Choctaw nation 4. ) DOCUMENT INFORMATION (There are many possible ways to answer A-E. ) A. List three things the author said that you think are important: 1. I think it’s important to know that the French gave them guns and other things to make hunting bountifully better for them as they embarked on their lands trying to make peace with the “red man” buying their trust and loyalty in relationships between the two races and culture. Mingo was grateful for this as it provided many ways of life for his tribe to survive. This is important because it marked a great peace trade between French and Indians. . With respect to the Land I was not Consulted in it, if I was to deliver my Sentiments evil disposed People might impute it to Motives very different from those which actuate me, it is true the Land belonged chiefly to those who have given it away; that the Words which were Spoken have been written with a Lasting Mark, the Superintendant marks every word after word as one would count Bullets so that no variation can happen, & therefore the words have been Spoken and the eternal marks traced I will not Say anything to contradict, but, on the Contrary Confirm the Cession which has been made.
What I have now to Say on that head is, to wish that all the Land may be Settled in four years that I may See it myself before I die. 3. “There was one thing I would mention tho’ it cannot concern myself, & that is the Behaviour of the traders towards our Women” “often when the Traders sent for a Basket of Bread & the Generous Indian sent his own wife to Supply their wants instead of taking the Bread out of the Basket they put their hand upon the Breast of their Wives which was not to be admitted, for the first maxim in our Language is that Death is preferable to disgrace. Men who did not honor the authority usually treated Indian women with dirspect and used them for their own sexual expectations. It was normal for British men to take Indian women and marry them. I supposed this is how is started. 5. ) FRANCE/ENGLAND/NATIVE AMERICANS Your textbook discusses how Native Americans developed different relations with the French and the English (Chapter 6, pp. 162-167). Read over that section of your book to answer the following questions. A. Although Native Americans were not mentioned in the 1763 Treaty of Paris that ended the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War), how did this treaty affect indigenous peoples who lived in Canada and areas east of the Mississippi River? -Britain gained control of Canada, eliminating the French threat from the North. France transferred all its territory west of the Mississippi River, including New Orleans to Spain as compensation for help during the war. B. ) What type of political/economic relationship did the French establish with Native Americans prior to 1763? The French had cemented respectful alliances with many Indian tribes. To Indians, gifts cemented social relationships, symbolizing honor and establishing obligation. The French had mastered the subtleties of gift exchange, distributing textiles and hats and receiving calumets (ceremonial pipes) in return. Generous givers expressed dominance and protection, not subordination, in the ceremonial practices of giving. C. ) According to your textbook (pp. 162-167), why didn’t the British believe in exchanging gifts with Native Americans (as the French had done)? From the British view, a generous gift might signify tribute (thus demeaning the giver), or it might be positioned as a bribe. They never indented to gain the friendship of Indians by presents. D. ) What caused Pontiac’s Rebellion of 1763? – The renewal of commitment to Indian ways and the formation of tribal alliances led to open warfare. Pontiac’s Rebellion was a war waged by Indians of the Great Lakes region against British rule after the French and Indian War. The Indians, who had formed alliances with the defeated French, were dissatisfied with treatment from British officials.
Unlike the Indian’s French allies, British officials entrusted with Indian relations refused to offer gifts to tribal leaders such as guns, gunpowder, and ammunition. Furthermore, English settlers began displacing Indians from their land. While French settlers and Indians seemed to live in relative harmony, the sheer number of English settlers that descended on the region prompted many Indians to support war. 6. ) Did Alibamon Mingo, the leader of the Choctaw nation, appear to look forward to future relations with the British (in the year 1765)? 7. ) LAND OWNERSHIP A. Did Alibamon Mingo think that once land treaties were signed with the British that Native Americans would no longer have access to those lands? -No he did not think that B. ) Did Native Americans view land ownership differently than Europeans? If so, in what way? – Yes. They viewed it as a place of abundance for food, clothing, and housing options for their way of living. He thought that the land, whether it forcefully taken or negotiated to share, that no matter what it still solely belonged to those who were there first. “it is true the Land belonged chiefly to those who have given it away”
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