Successful completion of mandatory instruction provides the school departers with chances either to foster their instruction or to come in into full clip employment. The degrees at which these pupils pass reflect a great trade non merely on their single public presentation but besides that of the schools that work competitively difficult for good public presentation on the national conference tabular arraies. Whereas successful post-16 patterned advance is of import for the pupils, the pick of which path they should take is every bit of import. Through debut of co-curricular and work related larning programmes to schools, the authorities has ever made proviso for the school departers to be good prepared for either the universe of work or patterned advance to further or higher instruction after their compulsory instruction, irrespective of their capablenesss or societal backgrounds ( Thomas 2001:2 ) . Cropley ( 1978 ) suggested that society in general demands that the school system should ease the scholar with full and satisfactory personal growing and increased ego realization, in that success of immature people in instruction attainments besides has a great bearing towards the society ‘s future economic prosperity ( Thomas 2001:21 ) . This survey will research the chances available for the post-16 patterned advance and look into the inhibiting barriers that cause some immature people to be neither in employment nor in instruction and preparation ( NEET ) in malice of the authorities ‘s reforms to the system, as stated in the undermentioned infusion from appendix 1:
“ Reducing the proportion of 16- to 18-year-olds non in instruction, employment or preparation ( NEET ) is a precedence for the Government. Bing NEET between the ages of 16-18 is a major forecaster of ulterior unemployment, low income, teenage maternity, depression and hapless physical wellness. No individual bureau holds all the keys to cut downing NEET ; LAs, schools, the Learning and Skills Council, young person support services and employers all have cardinal functions to play. ” Dcsf
Statement of Purpose
The intent of this survey is to turn to the research inquiry “ What are the chances and the challenges faced in the procedure of patterned advance to the Post Compulsory Education? ” A literature hunt will be done to research the programmes on offer, the chances they provide and the challenges faced by the pupils in the procedure of patterned advance to farther instruction establishments. This will take to a find of the degree of success in footings of engagement and aid to place any barriers that cause some immature people to be excluded from these programmes stoping up non in employment or instruction and preparation ( NEET ) . The survey will besides reexamine some of the paperss produced by authorities backed scholarly commissions assigned with the duty of reforming instruction programmes, to set up grounds why it was found necessary to widen chances for farther instruction and what impact it has had on the pupil population in England. Such paperss will include among others studies by the Nuffield Review committee ( 2005-2006 ) , the Dearing study and the Tomlinson Report ( 2004 ) .
This survey is based on one cardinal inquiry: “ What are the chances and challenges in the procedure of patterned advance to the Post Compulsory Education in England? ” This inquiry will be addressed by interrupting it down into two research inquiries:
What are the post-compulsory instruction programmes on offer in England?
What are the inhibiting factors faced by pupils in the procedure of post-16 patterned advance?
Significance of the survey
This research is intended to increase the consciousness and apprehension of the significance of the station compulsory educational programmes to the post-16 pupils and their parents. A survey of the procedure of patterned advance to the post-compulsory educational programmes is intended to place issues that pose as challenges or suppressing factors to the immature people and suggest possible ways to enable more engagement, taking to decreased Numberss of those non in employment of instruction and preparation ( NEET ) . It is besides hoped that such cognition will profit all stakeholders within the system towards improved collaborative engagement and bringing of services. This survey will prosecute pupils in a study where questionnaires will be used to pull out textual informations from the take parting respondents, which will be chiefly the pupils. The chief Centre of survey will be the take parting colleges subject to blessing by the appropriate ethical commission, and permission from the college disposal. Through a particular agreement with the disposal a subdivision of parents to the take parting pupils will be accessed to seek their sentiment on the post-compulsory instruction programmes available for their kids.
Focus of the survey
The research inquiry “ What are the chances and challenges in the procedure of patterned advance to the Post Compulsory Education in England? ” is a far making study inquiry and undoubtedly surpasses the range of this survey. For practicality of the survey nevertheless a particular focal point will be made on two farther colleges within Berkshire, a county with legion farther instruction colleges with more holding been built in the recent yesteryear. The probe will take on a general attack to the research inquiry in the position of placing what motivates the pupils and what they find to be barriers in the post-16 patterned advance. It is with the apprehension that schools play a prima function in finding the hereafter of students through academic attainments every bit good as through the school ethos as the chief beginning of inspiration for the scholar ( Thomas 2001 ) .
In an effort to turn to the research inquiry, the survey will concentrate on the undermentioned elements:
To set up the principle for the post-16 programmes available to pupils in England.
Explore the standards for registration in the post-16 programmes, and its inducements
Factors that both influence and suppress the post-16 patterned advance procedure, impacting determinations for or against engagement.
Aim of the survey
The chief aim of this survey will be to research options and place challenges that are faced in the procedure of patterned advance to further and higher instruction in England, and how these have engaged scholars. Recommendations from this survey will be made to take parting schools for effectual execution of such positions as will be collected from pupils and some of their parents. It is hoped that the survey will excite and lend to the preparation of in-depth research into similar programmes in some of the states in the underdeveloped universe, where instruction for all is on top of the political docket as one of the millenary development ends ( MDG 2015 ) .
A reappraisal of the literature turn toing the survey inquiries
What are the post-compulsory instruction programmes on offer in England?
Career counsel and reding sing their post-16 patterned advance paths is made available to the pupils in their concluding twelvemonth of compulsory instruction through Connexions direct, a agency dedicated to the service and advice of immature people ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.connexions-direct.com/index.cfm? pid=351 ) . A timetable for the whole twelvemonth is made available to the pupils to help them in be aftering the events that will finally take to their determinations on which path they will take ( see appendix2 ) . After finishing their compulsory instruction, immature people can take to go on in full clip school or articulation college, do an apprenticeship or acquire straight into employment, sooner with preparation ( Dcsf ) . For those aged between 16 and 17 there is what is known as ‘September Guarantee ‘ which is an agreement that guarantees the pick of those interested to stay in school or go on into college:
“ the ‘September Guarantee ‘ agencies that they will decidedly be able to go on learningaˆ¦Everyone between 16 and 17 due to go forth instruction is guaranteed an offer of a topographic point on an appropriate courseA – and information, advice and counsel to assist weigh up their options. ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.direct.gov.uk/en/EducationAndLearning/14To19/OptionsAt16/DG_10013574 )
Options runing from ‘A ‘ degrees to work related makings are available for the post-16 patterned advance. Presently selected schools and colleges do offer the 14-19 twelvemonth old sheepskin ( ibid. ) which is one of the latest add-ons to the instruction reforms. Whichever path immature people choose to take the advice given to them is “ it pays to maintain acquisition as more and more, employers are looking for people with higher degree accomplishments and makings ” ( Dcsf ) . The authorities acknowledges that makings are non a warrant for occupations although it encourages immature people to take part in the available chances as they will stand a better opportunity for both their societal and economic prosperity in a competitory economic universe.
What are the inhibiting factors faced by pupils in the procedure of post-16 patterned advance?
Having seen the broad scope of chances available to immature people after their mandatory instruction with all the options and free counsel available through Connexions Direct, this inquiry will now turn to ways in which the construction of the post-16 instruction system inhibits and bounds engagement in farther survey by some pupils.
Whereas schools are meant to assist find the future engagement of pupils in post-16 instruction, Thomas ( 2001 ) classifies possible barriers to the system to include those ironically created by the compulsory instruction system. One of these classs is making and accomplishment and the 2nd 1 is attitudes towards larning, page 73. Whereas pupils ‘ failure to accomplish a lower limit class has frequently been a cause for many lost chances to come on to post -16 instruction, it must be born in head that even where success is registered, it is most of import to cognize what impact the school has had on their perceptual experience as scholars. Whether acquisition was gratifying or excessively hard will be seen in the manner they respond to the post-16 chances. The attitude formed about school and acquisition contributes a great trade to the students ‘ self-efficacy ( Bandura1997 ) and formation of their self image.
It is hence in the involvement of the stakeholders within the instruction system, chiefly the instructors, pupils and their parents that the school environment provides the scholar with experiences that contribute to the image they have of themselves ( ibid ) . Pring et Al ( 2009 ) suggest that as surveies in educational attainment and societal mobility indicate, the function which schools play in altering lives can be limited in a sense that ‘family background continues to be a major determiner ‘ ( Coffey, 2001:68, 69 ) , and that public presentation in schools is mostly influenced by the societal category background. Sing societal category, Pring et Al ( 2009 ) had this to state:
‘aˆ¦the more disadvantaged the societal category background, the lower the degree of educational attainment that is likely to be achievedaˆ¦ Furthermore, immature people from less advantaged category backgrounds are less likely to take up chances available to them to come on through the educational system even where they are sufficiently qualified to do the progression’ Pring et Al ( 2009:32 )
It is beyond the range of this survey to discourse the relationship between societal exclusion and response to post-16 educational programmes it can be stated harmonizing to earlier surveies that ‘social category influences school accomplishment and this in portion impedes or enhances patterned advance into post-compulsory instruction ‘ ( Thomas,2001:74 )
Cohen et Al, ( 2007 ) refer to methods as ‘instruments of roll uping and construing informations ( page 83 ) ; whilst methodological analysis is the agencies which gives a descriptive attack and sort of paradigm to the survey ( page 47 ) . Educational research methods include interviews, questionnaires, and observations, among others. The determination as to which instrument is most suited for informations aggregation in this survey will depend chiefly on the ‘methodology ‘ or the nature of this research. The nature of this survey is both fact-finding and descriptive, that is it sets out to look into and depict chances and barriers presented by the procedure of patterned advance to the post-compulsory instruction system. As asserted by Best, ( 1970 ) , this research is concerned with conditions or relationships regulating 16 twelvemonth olds as they enter post-compulsory instruction stage. With this background hence this research worker will utilize the questionnaires to roll up and construe the positions of both pupils and their parents ongoing post-16 educational programmes available to them in the participating colleges. The survey will look at pupils as persons but the information collected will be interpreted in footings of the representative community.
The study research method
This method is most appropriate for this survey as it intends to find present educational conditions in a non-experimental manner, Hartas ( 2010 ) . The information will be collected in a non randomised manner by usage of questionnaires to be completed at will by take parting pupils. The method will give textual informations sing chances, challenges and/or barriers that are present in the passage from the compulsory to post-compulsory instruction.
The principle for usage of this method is dependent on the premise that the respondent ‘s positions and sentiments agree with their actions and it is hope that they will reply these inquiries truthfully. It is besides possible that non all respondents may be able to give their honest positions due to personal failings such as the usage of linguistic communication, or due to a deficiency of self-efficacy. Another premise asserted by Hartas ( 2010 ) is that the sample constitutes a homogeneous group of respondents with comparable instances where they all interpret the inquiries in similar ways without which the responses may non be dependable.
Cohen, et Al ( 2007 ) assert that studies can take on the nature of either longitudinal, transverse sectional or tendency surveies. Longitudinal surveies are used to roll up informations over an drawn-out period of clip and are applicable to such surveies as relate do developing phenomena. Harmonizing to Ruspini, ( 2002:24 ) , they enable research workers to analyze the continuance of societal phenomena foregrounding similarities, differences and alterations over clip in regard of one or more variables or participants, place long term effects and explain alterations in footings of stable features such as sex or a variable characteristic such as income, ( Cohen, et al 2007:212 ) . Because this survey will be confined within a fixed and limited timeframe it renders this type of study out of the inquiry. On the other manus a ‘Cross Sectional ‘ survey is one that produces a descriptive image of a population at a peculiar point in clip, as in the instance of carry oning a nose count. In instruction, cross sectional surveies involve indirect steps of the nature and rate of alterations in the physical and rational development of samples of kids drawn from representative age degrees. Harmonizing to Cohen, et Al, ( 2007:213 ) , the individual ‘snapshot ‘ or the representative image of the cross sectional survey provides the research worker with informations for either retrospective or prospective question.
The 3rd type of study, the ‘Trend survey ‘ , focuses on factors instead than people, where these factors are studied within a specific timeframe ( Borg & A ; Gall 1989:422 ) . This survey peculiar will take on a ‘Trend Study ‘ nature of an enquiry where two sets of 10 pupils each will be interviewed from two different farther instruction colleges to function as a representative sample for intents of this survey.
Following is a description of the educational methods which will be used efficaciously in the aggregation of informations for intents of this research.
Using the written questionnaire, the pupils will be approached in a more or less personal manner as it works as a replacement for the personal interviews ( Cohen and Manion, 1998 ) . In add-on to turn toing the survey inquiries, these questionnaires will besides be used to roll up informations on issues that are of concern to pupils in the current system of instruction, and solicit for any suggestions they might wish to be included in the recommendations ensuing from the survey. Sing its efficiency for this nature of informations aggregation, Borg & A ; Gall, ( 1989: 426 ) asserts that this method is really instrumental when the research worker needs to rapidly and easy acquire tonss of information from people in a non baleful manner, hence the determination for it to be used in this survey.
Policy Documentary Review
Policy Documentary Review as a research method is done by analyzing and reexamining policies and their application. Using this method the research worker will analyze some of the paperss produced by assorted committees assigned with the duty to reform instruction of 14-19 twelvemonth olds. Documents to be reviewed in this survey will include the Tomlinson study and the Nuffield committee study, which were made as recommendations to the authorities ‘s section of instruction ( DCSF ) in the old government.
How the textual information will be analysed
How the information is traveling to be analysed
Rationale for the Selection of Participating Colleges
Population harmonizing to Hartas, ( 2010:67 ) is a group of persons or administrations that portion the same feature that is of involvement to a survey, in this instance the pupils in the procedure of post-16 patterned advance throughout England. Such a figure will evidently be inexplicable in a survey of this size nevertheless, a ‘representative sample ‘ in this instance as defined by Hartas ( 2010 ) will be the pupils selected from the two colleges of farther instruction within Berkshire. The procedure of choosing this sample is really of import as it is pertinent to the cogency of this research, and it will be explored further in the chapter on methodological analysis. Nevertheless the cardinal factors that need to be mentioned here include what judgement will be based on viz. , the sample size, representativeness of the parametric quantities of the sample, handiness to the sample and the trying scheme to be used ( Cohen, et Al. 2007:100 ) .
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