ASSIGNMENT OF Total Quality Management Submitted To: Prof. Sajid Javaid Akbar Submitted By: M. Farhan Akhtar [Group Leader] Section: “D” Roll No: 835 B. Com (HONS), Semester: VI Topic: “Employee Involvement” HAILEY COLLEGE OF COMMERCE UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB |Sr # |Group members |Roll No. |1 |Muhammad Salman nisar |818 | |2 |Muhammad Uzair Bin Nasir |822 | |3 |Adnan Javed |830 | |4 |Muhammad Farhan Akhtar |835 | | |[Group Leader] | | |5 |Khizer Ali |875 | To Whom It May Concern: We allowed the group, lead by Mr. Muhammad Farhan Akhtar, of Hailey College of Commerce, to conduct the research for their course, Total Quality Management, on the topic of Employee Involvement. Nasir Mahmood Director, Madina Builders. |Sr # |Table of Contents |Page No. |1 |Executive Sumary |09 | |2 |Research Proposal Overview |11 | |3 |Research project Overview |15 | |4 |Observation and Preliminary Data Gathering |18 | |5 |Problem Definition |19 | |6 |Theoretical Framework |20 | |7 |Relationship Between Variables |25 | |8 |Hypothesis |27 | |9 |Questionnaire Sample |29 | |10 |Analysis And Interpretation |30 | |11 |Deduction |33 | |12 |Reference |34 | Acknowledgement First I bow my head before Almighty Allah who has enable me to write on this assignment.. I am also indebted to my respected Instructor Prof. Sajid Javaid Akbar whose guidance encouraged me in writing this Project. I am also thankful to my friends who provided me the help and suggestions when and where needed. Dedication We dedicated our project To our respected Teacher “Prof. Sajid Javaid Akbar” Proposal For EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT while working at MADINA TRADERS (a Construction Company).
Executive Summary The purpose of the research report is to ascertain the level of EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT while working at MADINA TRADERS (a Construction Company). That the company realizes that their employees are not as involved as they should be , so being a researcher we conduct some research on it. We design a questionnaire related to their problem to the target Employees and distribute this questionnaire to the Employees to get their feedback to solve the problem. If you want to retain your Employees, learn what their expectations are and do what you can to increase their motivation level, their commitment and making work a positive experience.
Managers are worried about the increasing hesitation and changing attitude of Employees so, in order to know the Employees Involvement level and want to identify the factors which cause the changing commitment & motivation level. The purpose of our study is to know how to improve the Employees Involvement level and its commitment at MADINA TRADERS. So that the management makes good efforts to ensure availability of good services to the customer. So, the research team of 5 members having research educational background will be assigned to study the factors. The scientific research design and methodology will be adopted for designing, collecting and analyzing the data and the results will be proposed to managers helping them get their reputation back. Before starting the research the appropriate time and budget is projected and allocated to the research.
The non-probability sampling technique is used to construct the sample from at MADINA TRADERS. The data is collected through a structured questionnaire and some of the unstructured questions. [pic] Problem Statement: The management’s concern about Employees Involvement while working at Madina Builders. Research Objective: The purpose of our study is to know how to improve the Employees Involvement level and its commitment while working at Madina Builders. So that the management makes good efforts to ensure availability of good services to the customer. Literature Review: There’s a lot of research had already been done on while working at Madina Builders. But not as such in Pakistan. Importance of study:
We are concern to while working at Madina Builders, regarding working at Madina Builders. Research Design: ? Purpose of study: `Descriptive Study ? Unit of Analysis: Individuals ? Time Dimension: Cross sectional study ? Mode of investigation: Casual ? Sampling Design: Non-Probability ? Extent of researcher interface: Full control ? Data collection method: Primary Ethical Requirements: A good Ethical conduct will be adopted while conducting research. So that no body either respondent, sponsor or the research team suffer adverse consequences from research activities. Nature and form of result: Result is given in the following forms: ? Graphs ? Charts ? Description ? Tables etc… Qualification of researcher:
B. Com (HONS) 6th Semester… Engage in class study project. Budget: The following are the cost which spent on this project. Cost summary Travel cost500 Questionnaire development250 Printing cost200 Data entry150 Refreshment during Interviews400 Telephone200 Total cost1700/- Schedule of project: ? Meeting among research team members. ? Meeting between Research team and management. ? Interaction with subject/respondent. ? Filling of questionnaire ? Making Project Report Facilities and Special resources: We are expecting Coordination and corporation from the management of the Departmental Store. [pic][pic] Project Report On “EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT”
Phases and task steps in Project Study Phase I: Determination of the information research problem. Task Step 1: Determine and clarify management’s information needs. Task Step 2: Redefine the management problem as a research problem. Task Step 3: Establish research objectives and determine the value of the information. Phase II: Development of the appropriate research design. Task Step 4: Determine and evaluate the research design and data sources. Task Step 5: Determine the sample plan and sample size. Task Step 6: Determine the measurement issues and scales. Phase III: Execution of the research design. Task Step 7: Collect and process data.
Task Step 8: Analyze data. Task Step 9: Transform data structures into information. Phase IV: Communication of the results. Task Step 10: Prepare and present final report to management. Background Here we give the history and information of the company. The firm was established about Three years ago with a motive of flourishing and providing better emplacement opportunities to the people concerning this business and also to earn livelihood for us and for our employees. Principal of the company 1. Mr. Mahhmood Ghaznavi (DAE Civil) 2. Mr. Nasir Mahmood (CA finalist) Company Profile Name of Company Madina Builders Engineers, contractors& General order suppliers
Address Office No # 4, Forth floor, Zuhra Heights, Main Market, Gulberg, Lahore. List of Employees 1. B. Sc Civil Engineer2 2. B. Sc Mechanical Engineer1 3. Sub Engineer2 4. Quality Surveyor1 5. Work Supervisor3 6. Operator Cum Mechanic1 7. Skilled Labor6 8. Labor9 9. Plumber1 10. Electrician1 11. Peon2 12. Driver 2 13. Chokidar3 Step 1: Observation The manager of the departmental store observes that customers are perhaps not as pleased as they used to be. The manager may not be certain that this is really the problem but may experience anxiety and some uneasiness that customer satisfaction is on the decline. Step 2: Preliminary data gathering
As we study the manager’s observation we discover the undisguised structured, direct and non-participant observation. ? Employees qualify to be the participant of data collection. ? The management’s concern about Employees Involvement while working at Madina Builders (a Construction Company). ? We get Employees response at the work days because of the availability of majority of the Employees. ? Direct interaction with Employees through Questionnaires and interviews. ? The place of study is a Construction site. Purpose of preliminary data collection. Our purpose to collect preliminary to identify and solve the management problem. And to convert management problem into research problem.
Sources of Data Collection: ? Questionnaire ? Interviews ? Observation ? Survey ? Internet ? Books ? Publications ? Journals Primary data collecting will help us to develop a theoretical framework and a testable hypothesis and to solve the problem with precision and clarity and ensure us that important variable is not left out from the study. So our efforts are not wasted on the already known things to the management. Step 3: Problem Definition “Decrease in Motivation and Employee Involvement level” Step 4: Theoretical Framework Introduction to EMPLOYEES INVOLVEMENT: Getting employees’ ideas and getting their involvement is critical in our rapidly changing world.
If your company is going to be competitive, it’s mandatory to involve not just hands, but the ideas from everyone in your organization. by Gregory P. Smith Why is it important to capture ideas and suggestions? For starters, the process improves individual motivation and morale. Involvement programs help capture the creativity, energy, and ideas many people have. They also allow departments and individuals to work cross-functionally, and create an environment of learning and constant renewal. They improve work methods and processes continually, reduce the costs of doing business, improve safety, and reduce accidents. Exchanging ideas always improves communication and the knowledge that top management is open and willing to act on the ideas improves trust.
Instead of passing untested ideas up the chain of command, the employee who originates an idea has responsibility for its achievement. They follow a three-step work process: ? Study it ? Pilot it ? Adopt it Idea Campaigns. Most suggestion programs fail. Suggestion boxes sit and collect dust and approved suggestions are few and far between. An effective variation to the suggestion program is the Idea Campaign. Over and done with in three weeks, this steroid-enriched campaign generates hundreds of ideas. The goal is to get at least one idea from everyone in the organization. For the first idea, each person receives a small token of appreciation such as a coffee cup.
A second idea is acknowledged with another form of appreciation. At the end of each week, a special award ceremony recognizes everyone who turned in ideas or suggestions Suggestion System: ? An employee (associate) idea process openly invites ideas from individuals or groups in an organization. ? Each idea is treated with respect, fairly evaluated and every effort is made to work toward its timely closure, striving to implement every idea possible. ? Feedback and mentoring is invested with the participants so they can clearly define their ideas and the future ideas they develop. ? All people involved in the process are appropriately recognized and acknowledged for their efforts. A result of the process improves all aspects of the organization and is a rewarding experience for participants. Employee involvement in Total Quality Management Total Quality Management is one of the major “workplace change” programmes used in Britain, but few studies have addressed the effects on employees. New research evidence questions optimistic and pessimistic accounts, finding that TQM is widely welcomed but that it does not lead to “empowerment”, and that success depends on certain conditions, notably job security. Employee Involvement Analysis falls into two main types: ? optimistic texts, which often prescribe ways of implementing TQM and assume a welcome from employees; and ? ritical studies, which either (a) equate TQM with intensified managerial control under the pretence of “empowerment” or (b) accept that TQM can be effective, but argue that in practice poor implementation has undermined this promise. The critical studies often argue that TQM undermines the representative role of trade unions by strengthening direct links between employer and employee. (a) Employee views More than four-fifths of the sample of employees saw quality as the crucial issue for their organisations or as very important. Almost two-thirds felt that employees had a “great deal” or a “fair amount” of influence over quality, and over 70 per cent felt that their own involvement in problem-solving had increased. Five employees in six identified the presence of meetings designed for problem-solving.
Of the sample, 72% felt that there had been an increase in communication activity recently. The most favourably evaluated method was team briefing, followed by informal communication with individual managers. It was direct, face-to-face, communication which employees most valued. Workers also reported more stress and higher levels of work effort. A key result was that reported levels of trust between management and worker were no higher than in organisations without TQM initiatives. (b) Management and worker expectations Many proponents of TQM claim that it “empowers” workers. Critics equate it with work intensification and stress. The study finds that neither picture is accurate.
Managements in the organisations studied did not use the language of empowerment and had more pragmatic goals. One manager summed this up: “empowerment is not a word used at local level; we can and do involve people more but we need to have constraints”. Workers reported higher effort levels, but most liked the pace at which they worked. Those who were working harder and who were most subject to the measurement of their performance were also the most likely to favour quality programmes. These programmes seem to promote a narrowly focused but real sense of discipline and purpose, rather than being a means to make workers work harder, the report concludes. c) Conditions for success Acceptance of TQM was greatest where several conditions prevailed. ? A strong sense of job security was a key element in encouraging acceptance of quality initiatives. ? Training was important; it was not the overall amount which mattered, but the extent to which programmes were specifically linked to quality or teamwork. ? Cooperative relationships with employee representatives were an important element in easing the acceptance of TQM. All the case study firms were unionised, and it was found that firms which maintained working relationships with their unions were also the most likely to maintain their quality programmes effectively. Short-term pressures tended to undermine TQM initiatives. They were of two kinds: production pressures, which made it hard for quality activities to be maintained; and financial pressures, which could reduce the resources for and commitment to TQM. Do employee involvement and TQM programs work? The employee involvement literature emphasizes design of the work and business units for fuller business involvement and employee motivation. In addition, employee involvement emphasizes making the employee a stakeholder in business performance There is a strong correlation between the adoption of employee involvement approaches and the use of TQM practices…
The extent to which companies employ the core TQM practices, the production-oriented practices, collaboration with customers, and cost-of-quality monitoring all have a highly significant relationship to our measure of overall employee involvement use. The relationship to the development of knowledge and skills is particularly strong, demonstrating the strong emphasis in TQM programs on the development of skills. TQM’s relationship to power sharing is also very strong, reflecting the focus in TQM on problem solving and decision making groups in general and on work cells and teams. The findings with respect to the combined impact of TQM and El are not unexpected: most TQM proponents advocate high levels of employee involvement as part of their TQM efforts.
However, the findings do make a very important point: the impact of TQM programs that do not also include El practices will be less positive both for employee outcomes and for performance outcomes. TQM Defined TQM is a management philosophy that seeks to integrate all organizational functions (marketing, finance, design, engineering, and production, customer service, etc. ) to focus on meeting customer needs and organizational objectives. TQM is the foundation for activities, which include: ? Commitment by senior management and all employees ? Meeting customer requirements ? Reducing development cycle times ? Just In Time/Demand Flow Manufacturing ? Improvement teams ? Reducing product and service costs ? Systems to facilitate improvement ? Line Management ownership ? Employee involvement and empowerment ? Recognition and celebration Challenging quantified goals and benchmarking ? Focus on processes / improvement plans ? Specific incorporation in strategic planning There are three major mechanisms of prevention: 1. Preventing mistakes (defects) from occurring 2. Where mistakes can’t be absolutely prevented, detecting them early to prevent them being passed down the value added chain (Inspection at source or by the next operation). 3. Where mistakes recur, stopping production until the process can be corrected, to prevent the production of more defects. (Stop in time). Identify Variables At this step we identify the possible variables and elaborate the relationship among them.
Then we describe the nature and direction of these variables. Identify variables: ? Wages ? Working place ? Working hours ? Management behavior ? employees participation Labeling: INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLES Relation between Variables INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLES Step 5: Generation of Hypothesis ? If wages are good than the Employee involvement will increase. ? If working place is good than the Employee involvement will increase. ? If working hours are suitable than the Employee involvement will increase. ? If management behavior is good than the Employee involvement will increase. If employees are allowed to express their view than the Employee involvement will increase. Possible Outcomes: Possibility 1. ? If wages > than the > Employee involvement ? If working place > than the > Employee involvement ? If working hours < than the > Employee involvement ? If management behavior > than the > Employee involvement ? If employee participation > than the > Employee involvement Possibility 2: ? If wages < than the < Employee involvement ? If working place < than the < Employee involvement ? If working hours > than the < Employee involvement ? If management behavior < than the < Employee involvement If employee participation < than the < Employee involvement Step 6: Research Design As we know that decrease in Employee Involvement level is our current problem, so that’s why we design research in such a way that after conducting research we will able to identify, what the main causes of that particular problem. In this section we follow the following steps: Sample Selection In this we select the sample (to whom we are going to research). i-e number of person. Data collection We did test the questionnaire with a small sample of Employees using Construction site. The instruments submitted for design an effective questionnaire and then distributed as we can. Questionnaire
We are conducting a research to know Employee’s Satisfaction level while working at Madina Builders. Q-1 Are You Happy With Behavior Of: Good Average Poor 1. Top Management 2. Colleagues Q-2 Facilities Provided By Company: Yes No Transport Medical Other Q-3 Are You happy With The Working Environment: YesNoNo opinion Q-4 Are Wages & Salaries Paid On Time : YesNoNo opinion Q-5 Working Hours Are In Accordance With The Labor Law: YesNoNo opinion Q-6 You Are Provided The Necessary Tools & Machinery For Work: Yes NO No opinion Q-7 Your Experience Of Working At Madina Builders : ExcellentGoodBad Q-8 Any improvement you want in Madina Builders? (Suggestions) | Survey collected by: Step 7: Analysis and Interpretation DATA ANALYSES: We reviewed the questionnaire which return and make a weekly report listing Employees who were dissatisfied or who submit negative comments. We improved timeline in resolving Employees complaints each month we make a report consisting of frequencies and category percentages for each question. We proposed to include at least one question dealing with overall satisfaction. A performance grid will identify items need improvement with an evaluation of priority.
Interpretation of data with the help of graphs: [pic] Employees are satisfied with the behavior of: [pic] Facilities Provided By Company: [pic] Employees are happy with the environment: [pic] Working Hours Are In Accordance With The Labor Law: |Variables: |% of | | |Persons | |Yes |71 | |No |20 | |No Opinion |9 | Figures in %age* Step 8: Deduction We all the group members worked with devotion to identify the variables that affect the sale. We worked in a team and experienced the quality of team building in us.
Every member of us has done her work on the given time, which the team leader assigns to every member. In this time p in which we complete our project, there is a management in our whole session. For example, time management, self management, financial management etc. So from all above study there is a reason to believe that there are certain factors responsible for the specific problem upon which we are focused our research. We identified all factors and give suggestions in form of Hypothesis which contribute to bring back the desired Consumers Satisfaction level. Conclusions: TQM encoureges participation amongst shop floor workers and managers.
There is no single theoretical formalization of total quality, but Deming, Juran and Ishikawa provide the core assumptions, as a “… discipline and philosophy of management which institutionalizes planned and continuous… improvement … and assumes that quality is the outcome of all activities that take place within an organization; that all functions and all employees have to participate in the improvement process; that organizations need both quality systems and a quality culture. “. “Quality programmes can”, the study says, “be seen as catalysts”, bringing out workers’ willingness to take responsibility and providing a focus and rationale for efforts at involvement.
But involvement remained within tight limits and there were several factors, notably insecurity and financial constraints, which could undercut the promise of quality programmes. “The challenge”, the study concludes, “is to maintain TQM in the face of external pressures”. References Websites: Employee Involvement (www. employeeinvolvement. com) Search Engine (www. google. com) Appendices ? Questionnaire ? Charts ? Graphs ? Tables [pic][pic] ———————– Participation Behavior Hours Employee Involvement Place ice Wages Participation Behavior Hours Employee Involvement Place Wages Determination of information research problem Execution of the research design Development of research design Communication of the results Phase II Phase I Phase III Phase IV